Reverse Engineering And Reengineering Pdf

reverse engineering and reengineering pdf

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Reverse engineering is the process of discovering the technological principles of a human made device, object or system through analysis of its structure, function and operation. It often involves taking something e. Reverse engineering has its origins in the analysis of hardware for commercial or military advantage. The same techniques are subsequently being researched for application to legacy software systems, not for industrial or defence ends, but rather to replace incorrect, incomplete, or otherwise unavailable documentation.

The physical object can be measured using 3D scanning technologies like CMMs, laser scanners, structured light digitizers or Industrial CT Scanning computed tomography. The measured data alone, usually represented as a point cloud, lacks topological information and is therefore often processed and modeled into a more usable format such as a triangular-faced mesh, a set of NURBS surfaces or a CAD model.

Reverse engineering is also used by businesses to bring existing physical geometry into digital product development environments, to make a digital 3D record of their own products or to assess competitors' products.

It is used to analyse, for instance, how a product works, what it does, and what components it consists of, estimate costs, and identify potential patent infringement, etc. Value engineering is a related activity also used by businesses. It involves de-constructing and analysing products, but the objective is to find opportunities for cost cutting.

The term reverse engineering as applied to software means different things to different people, prompting Chikofsky and Cross to write a paper researching the various uses and defining a taxonomy. From their paper, they state, "Reverse engineering is the process of analyzing a subject system to create representations of the system at a higher level of abstraction.

Reverse engineering is a process of examination only: the software system under consideration is not modified which would make it re-engineering.

Software anti-tamper technology is used to deter both reverse engineering and re-engineering of proprietary software and software-powered systems. In practice, two main types of reverse engineering emerge. In the first case, source code is already available for the software, but higher-level aspects of the program, perhaps poorly documented or documented but no longer valid, are discovered.

In the second case, there is no source code available for the software, and any efforts towards discovering one possible source code for the software are regarded as reverse engineering.

This second usage of the term is the one most people are familiar with. Reverse engineering of software can make use of the clean room design technique to avoid copyright infringement.

On a related note, black box testing in software engineering has a lot in common with reverse engineering. The tester usually has the API, but their goals are to find bugs and undocumented features by bashing the product from outside.

Other purposes of reverse engineering include security auditing, removal of copy protection "cracking" , circumvention of access restrictions often present in consumer electronics, customization of embedded systems such as engine management systems , in-house repairs or retrofits, enabling of additional features on low-cost "crippled" hardware such as some graphics card chip-sets , or even mere satisfaction of curiosity.

An example of a group that reverse-engineers software for enjoyment and to distribute registration cracks is CORE which stands for "Challenge Of Reverse Engineering". Reverse engineering of software is protected in the U. Reverse engineering of software can be accomplished by various methods. The three main groups of software reverse engineering are. A number of UML tools refer to the process of importing and analysing source code to generate UML diagrams as "reverse engineering".

See List of UML tools. Protocols are sets of rules that describe message formats and how messages are exchanged i. Accordingly, the problem of protocol reverse-engineering can be partitioned into two subproblems; message format and state-machine reverse-engineering.

The message formats have traditionally been reverse-engineered through a tedious manual process, which involved analysis of how protocol implementations process messages, but recent research proposed a number of automatic solutions [11] [12] [13]. Typically, these automatic approaches either group observed messages into clusters using various clustering analyses, or emulate the protocol implementation tracing the message processing. There has been less work on reverse-engineering of state-machines of protocols.

In general, the protocol state-machines can be learned either through a process of offline learning, which passively observes communication and attempts to build the most general state-machine accepting all observed sequnces of messages, and online learning, which allows interactive generation of probing sequences of messages and listening to responses to those probing sequences. In general, offline learning of small state-machines is known to be NP-complete [14] , while online learning can be done in polynomial time [15].

An automatic offline approach has been demonstrated by Comparetti at al. Other components of typical protocols, like encryption and hash functions, can be reverse-engineered automatically as well. Typically, the automatic approaches trace the execution of protocol implementations and try to detect buffers in memory holding unencrpyted packets [17].

Reverse engineering is an invasive and destructive form of analyzing a smart card. The attacker grinds away layer by layer of the smart card and takes pictures with an electron microscope. With this technique, it is possible to reveal the complete hardware and software part of the smart card. The major problem for the attacker is to bring everything into the right order to find out how everything works.

Engineers try to hide keys and operations by mixing up memory positions, for example, busscrambling. Engineers employ sensors to detect and prevent this attack.

Furthermore, the payoff from this attack is low since other security techniques are often employed such as shadow accounts. Reverse engineering is often used by militaries in order to copy other nations' technologies, devices or information that have been obtained by regular troops in the fields or by intelligence operations. Well-known examples from WWII and later include. In the United States even if an artifact or process is protected by trade secrets, reverse-engineering the artifact or process is often lawful as long as it is obtained legitimately.

However, an item produced under one or more patents could also include other technology that is not patented and not disclosed. One common motivation of reverse engineers is to determine whether a competitor's product contains patent infringements or copyright infringements. The reverse engineering of software in the US is generally illegal because most EULA prohibit it, and courts have found such contractual prohibitions to override the copyright law; see Bowers v.

Baystate Technologies. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. IEEE Software 7 1 : 13— Michael L. Furthermore, reverse engineering concept is used to modify or change premade. Varady, R. Martin, J. Cross II January Software Reuse and Reverse Engineering in Practice. Security Warrior 1st ed. Yale Law Journal 7 : — Retrieved Cui, J. Kannan, and H. Discoverer: Automatic protocol reverse engineering from network traces. Cui, M. Peinado, K. Chen, H. Wang, and L. Tupni: Automatic reverse engineering of input formats.

ACM, Oct Comparetti, G. Wondracek, C. Kruegel, and E. Prospex: Protocol specification extraction. Complexity of automaton identification from given data. Information and Control, 37 3 , Learning regular sets from queries and counterexamples.

Information and Computation, 75 2 , Cho, D. Babic, R. Shin, and D. Caballero, H. Yin, Z. Liang, and D. Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communications security, p. Category : Book:Introduction to Software Engineering. Hidden category: Pages using RFC magic links. Namespaces Book Discussion.

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Reverse engineering

Changing architectures and improvements in programming methods, including formal methods in software development and object-oriented programming, have prompted a need to reverse engineer and re-engineer program code. This paper presents a two-phase approach to reverse engineering, the results of which can be used to guide the re-implementation of an object-oriented version of the system. The first phase abstracts formal specifications from program code, while the second phase constructs candidate objects from the formal specifications obtained from the first phase. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available.

By constantly seeking ways of improving equipment performance, our re-engineering services deliver more than just replacement parts. Typical services include. Re-engineering can be undertaken on a single component or included as part of a comprehensive design review on the entire machine. Pump users often find it difficult to source parts for old or obsolete equipment. Such parts may be subject to long delivery times or may only be available at unattractive commercial terms.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Preface The essence of software re-engineering is to improve or transform existing software so that it can be understand, controlled, and used anew. The need for software re-engineering has increased greatly, as heritage software systems have become obsolescent in terms of their architecture, the platforms on which they run, and their suitability and stability to support evolution to support changing needs. Save to Library. Create Alert.

Introduction to Software Engineering/Reengineering/Reverse Engineering

Introduction to Program Comprehension through Dynamic Analysis. Van Wijk. Studying the co-evolution of production and test code in open source and industrial developer test processes through repository mining Empirical Software Engineering EMSE : 16 3 ,

Software Visualization pp Cite as. This article describes the Bauhaus tool suite as a concrete example for software visualization in reverse engineering, re-engineering, andsoft ware maintenance. Results from a recent survey on software visualization in these domains are reported.

Reverse engineering also known as backwards engineering or back engineering is a process or method through the application of which one attempts to understand through deductive reasoning how a device, process, system, or piece of software accomplishes a task with very little if any insight into exactly how it does so. Reverse engineering is applicable in the fields of computer engineering , mechanical engineering , electronic engineering , software engineering , chemical engineering , [1] and systems biology. There are many reasons for performing reverse engineering in various fields.

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Reverse engineering

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REENGINEERING AND REVERSE ENGINEERING. 5. Foreword. When finishing this report it is the end of a sequel of projects that started From.

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Reverse engineering is the process of discovering the technological principles of a human made device, object or system through analysis of its structure, function and operation.

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