File Name: language disorders and language development lahey .zip
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- Readings In Language Development By Lois Bloom
- Readings In Language Development By Lois Bloom
- A Discourse Approach to Language Disorders: Investigating Complex Sentence Production
- Lois Bloom
Readings In Language Development By Lois Bloom
Language development, language disorders, and learning disabilities: LD3. IntroductionLearning language is not easy although when one watches and listens to a young child learning to talk, it may seem easy. It may seem easy because little children use simple words, like more, Mommy, all gone, and bye bye, and not more complex words like behaviors and variation. It may seem easy because they play and laugh a lot and, when they cry, it is over such things as spilled milk.
The frequent claim that children learn language quickly and easily in their first three or four years is not correct. Children work very hard at learning language. Some children have to work much harder and for a longer time than others at learning language. A child of one to five years of age who is learning language slowly, or with particular difficulty has a learning problem. In prospect, that child can be expected to continue to have difficulty in learning in the school years.
That is to say that a child who has a problem in learning language in the preschool years will be a child with a learning disability in the school years.
And a child of six, seven, or eight years, or older who is having difficulty in learning reading, writing and academic skills is a child who, in retrospect, probably had a particularly hard time learning language at one, two, or three years of age --a child who was and still is a child with a learning disability.
I am grateful to Margaret Lahey, Henry Lahey, Lois Hood, Karin Lifter, and Dan Stern for collaborations and conversations; to Sandy Cortelyou and Kate Garnett for their careful transcription and interpretations of the Tim data; to Janet Wootten for her help in data processing; to Margaret Jo Shepherd for reading and commenting on the drafts of this manuscript; to Edward Mysak for his generous support; and to Tim's mother for her insight.
There are three aspects of language learning that I will discuss in this paper. First, I will present some of the reasons why learning language is not as easy as it seems.
Second, I will discuss variation in child language and include the following: the fact that individually children differ in the course of language acquisition; and the fact that the language behaviors of a particular child are variable. The variation among individuals, as welt as the variation within an individual, is due in large part to the fact that learning to talk is not easy.
Third, I will discuss the importance of observing and describing the behaviors of individuals rather than groups --not only for identifying the regularities, as well as the variation, in language behavior but, more importantly, for understanding a language disorder as both a learning disability and a variant of language development.
In this context, I will report some preliminary analyses we have made of longitudinal, developmental data collected from a young boy whom we call Tim. Our case study of Tim is both prospective and retrospective.
We made a series of eight one-hour video-taped observations of Tim's behavior in the period of time between our first observation when he was 2 years, 9 months old, and the last observation when he was about 5 years old. Because we were observing the language behavior of a child with a language disorder, who could be expected to be a child with a learning disability in his school years, our study was a prospective one.
Tim is now 8 years old, and in his third year in a classroom for children with special educational needs because of learning disabilities. Using our video-taped records of Tim's developing language behaviors from about three to five years of age, we can go back now and observe how he learned language; how his language learning varied from normal language development; and something about how difficult language learning is.
Thus our study is also retrospective. There is More to Language Than Meets the Ear For a long time in the study of children's language, attention has been given almost exclusively to the sounds, words and sentence structures that children use when they talk.
The task in learning to talk has been seen as an analytic one --infants need to learn to break into the sound stream and separate the parts. Words need to be separated into sounds so that infants can learn to combine sounds into words; and sentences need to be separated into words so that somewhat older Children can learn to combine words into sentences.
These analytic tasks require certain skills at the least, perception, discrimination, segmentation, and recognition to enable children to learn the forms of language. Language form is the mechanism, the code, the actual shapes and configurations of sounds, words, and structures. Language form is what children actually say. Forms of LanguageA major emphasis in the study of language learning, then, has been on how children learn the forms of language.
Some of what children need to learn about language form is represented in Figure 1. The forms of language have been organized in Figure 1 as they are traditionally in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax. Phonology is the sound system of the language --the segments or syllables of consonants and vowels, and suprasegmental tunings of intonation, stress, and pause.
Phonemes, segments and tuning do not, by themselves, carry meaning. Morphology is the collection of the smallest units of language that do carry meaning --the words in a dictionary or lexicon and inflections such as -ing, -s, and -er that are added to words to form other words.
Syntax is the organization of words and inflections into the still larger units of language that carry meaning --the sentences of the language. Learning the forms of language is not easy. It depends on hearing and learning to recognize recurrent aspects or regular features in what people say --even though people rarely repeat themselves or say exactly the same thing more than once. Although there are an infinite number of sentences that people can say, language form is nevertheless systematic, regular, and consistent.
Learning language form depends on learning the units and the rules for the combination of units that provide for both the creativity and regularity of language.
Most, if not all, of the standardized tests and instruments for assessing children's language behavior test one or another aspect of the forms of language that are schematically presented in Figure 1. These are the aspects of language that are probably most familiar to those who are concerned --as educators, clinicians, or parents --with children who have learning problems.
These are the aspects of language that meet the ear. Content of LanguageAt the end of the 's, research in cmLcl language began to shift toward investigation of what the forms of children's language seem to be saying and to the behaviors that accompany the words and sentences that children use in interacting with other persons.
When people began to pay attention to what children were talking about, it was possible to discover and describe something about the content of their language. Language content is the meaning or semantics of messages --what we talk about. Some of what children need to learn about language content is represented in Figure 2 are perceptually and functionally similar to one another such as chairs, dogs, cookies, balls, etc. Children need to learn about relations among objects so that they can talk about them.
There are reflexive relations of an object in relation to itself-objects exist, disappear, and recur. There are relations among objects in the same class --like objects that differ according to relative size, color, or number. There are relations between objects from different classes --one object can act on another; one object can be located on another; one object can be possessed by another.
Furthermore, children need to learn about events as well as relations between events. Such notions of content as the time an event occurs, or the mood of the speaker toward the event, or what the speaker feels or knows about the event are intra-event relations. The ways that different events relate to one another, or inter-event relations, have to do with notions of causality one event is a reason for another event and time events can occur together or in sequence with one another , etc.
The particular objects, the particular relations, and the particular events that people talk about are the topics of language. For example, the utterances eat cookie, play ball, go store, Daddy shoe are different topics but they share a consistency or regularity in that they code the relations between objects. The fact that topics share certain features of regularity and consistency makes it possible to classify them into categories of content, as in Figure 2.
There is probably an indefinite number, perhaps an infinite number, of topics that speakers can and do talk about in the same way that there is an infinite number of arrangements of forms or sentences that is possible in any language. As with language form, it is possible to classify topics according to their similarities and to form a relatively small set of categories.
The categories of content represented in Figure 2 is one way topics of language can be grouped together as categories of language content. Learning language content is not easy because language content is not so readily heard by the ear.
In order to know the meaning of a message one must know something about the world of objects, events, and relations. Objects and relations in the world are, fortunately, fairly coherent and systematic; the child's task is to discover the systematic and invariant ways in which objects and events are related to one another. When these invariances or consistencies among objects are mentally represented or coded in memory, then new objects and events can be recognized and, eventually, talked about.
Use of LanguageIn the 's, as researchers and clinicians began to pay attention to how children learn to use language, there was yet another shift of emphasis in the study of children's language. Some of what children need to learn about language use is shown in Figure 3. Children need to learn at least these two major aspects of language use: the functions or purposes of language; and the ways in which the context needs to be taken into account in order to achieve those functions.
Language functions have been categorized in Figure 3 as intrapersonal and interpersonal functions. Intrapersonal functions are those functions that language serves for the individual, such as problem solving, commenting to one's self, and vocal play. Interpersonal functions are pragmatic reasons for speaking to other persons in order to obtain and maintain interaction, information, and goods and services. Halliday has called these two functions of language the mathetic and pragmatic functions, respectively.
Children also need to learn to use language in relation to different kinds and amounts of support from the nonlinguistic context. When there is perceptual support from the context, it may be in the form of dynamic'events that are happening or states of affairs that exist in the context as the child talks about them.
Another aspect of the nonlinguistic context is the listener --different listeners need different information according to their ages, according to whether they also see what the speaker is talking about, and according to whether they already know something about what the speaker is talking about.
The form and content of messages vary according to the different needs that listeners have. Thus, one talks differently to a 2-year-old child than to a 6-year-old child, and one talks differently to an adult or a teenager than one talks to a 6-year-old.
Children need to learn how to adapt the form and content of their messages to the linguistic context --that is, to maintain coherent discourse. Some utterances will not be contingent on a prior utterance from someone else, as happens when one of the conversation partners takes the first turn, or changes the topic. But when an utterance is contingent on a prior utterance in that it shares the same topic, it may be imitative, or it may add information, or it may consist of one or another kind of question.
See Bloom, Rocissano, and Hood, Thinking for Language Learning There is, then, considerably more than meets the ear for learning aspects of language form, language content, and language use. For all three of these components of language, the child's task is, in part, the same. The child must detect the regularities, similarities, and invariances in behavior --in what is seen as well as heard --in order to recognize and deal with instances of behavior new sentences or new language topics or new contexts.
In addition to detection and recognition through the ear and the eye, however, each of the three components requires the child to form inferences about behaviors, and inferences are the products of thought. Children do not only listen and watch in order to learn language; they also think to learn language. Among the three components --form, content, and use --there are important differences in what the child needs to detect and recognize and infer.
With respect to language form, the child needs to derive inferences about the underlying rules or system of language and must derive them from the regularities among the sounds, the words, and the sentence structures that people say.
With respect to language content, the child needs to form inferences about the regularities and similarities in what objects do and what people do with objects.
Readings In Language Development By Lois Bloom
Language development: Form and function in emerging grammars. Bloom Collection language psychology Child development Language disorders language. Paul Bloom born December 24, is a Canadian American psychologist. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Language development by Lois Bloom, M.
Some children, however, learn language more slowly and with more difficulty so that by their third to create plans for assessment and intervention for children with language disorders. Bloom, Lois; Lahey, Margaret LangDev_and_LangDis_pdf application/pdf MB Download File.
A Discourse Approach to Language Disorders: Investigating Complex Sentence Production
Language and learning disorders. Carolina R. Schirmer I ; Denise R.
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Pragmatics of Language pp Cite as. Pragmatics has been popularly viewed as the fourth component of language, in addition to syntax, semantics, and phonology. From this perspective, each separate component is viewed as interacting with the others. The Bloom and Lahey model of language, which integrates the separate components of form, content, and use, exemplifies this approach.
Bloom, Lois ; Lahey, Margaret. Most young children learn the words and rules for simple sentences in their first few years. Some children, however, learn language more slowly and with more difficulty so that by their third birthday, parents and caregivers become concerned. Helping these children to catch up and learn language requires a plan for assessment and then a plan for intervention. Before this book was published, in , deciding which language forms to teach and in what order had typically relied on intuition and what seemed easiest to learn. And second, information from research with children who acquire language normally ought to inform plans for teaching children who learn language with difficulty. The important contributions in the book were a model of language with three intersecting components: content, form, and use, together with guidelines for using information from normal language acquisition to create plans for assessment and intervention for children with language disorders.
Bloom is the author of several books on language acquisition, including One Word At a Time: The Use of Single-Word Utterances Before Syntax  , the culmination of Bloom's first longitudinal study, and the first-ever published study of language acquisition to use video-recorded data. Language Development From Two To Three  a collection of findings from research studies spanning two decades, highlights the tremendous achievements in language acquisition that occur during this period of childhood. For Language Development and Language Disorders  , which she co-wrote with Margaret Lahey, Bloom connected her research with her early experience as a speech therapist working with language-delayed children. It offers guidelines for speech therapists assessing and assisting children with language delays. Maccoby Book Award from the American Psychological Association , Division 7, which recognizes the author of influential books in the field of developmental psychology. Bloom received her B.
Надеюсь, ты помнишь, что мы помолвлены. - Сьюзан - вздохнул он - Я не могу сейчас об этом говорить, внизу ждет машина. Я позвоню и все объясню. - Из самолета? - повторила. - Что происходит. С какой стати университетский профессор… Это не университетские дела.
- Стратмор приподнял брови, точно ждал объяснений. - Японские иероглифы. Стратмор покачал головой. - Это и мне сразу пришло в голову. Но послушай: канадец сказал, что буквы не складывались во что-то вразумительное. Японские иероглифы не спутаешь с латиницей. Он сказал, что выгравированные буквы выглядят так, будто кошка прошлась по клавишам пишущей машинки.
Да. Он очень толстый. Вы его запомнили.