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The books cover many examples, and it also demonstrates how to make the best use of them. This book presents the language from a practical point of view. The book helps you to learn object-oriented programming concepts such as encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism.
- 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers
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10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers
One of my favorite professional activities is speaking at software conferences. Join the O'Reilly online learning platform. Get a free trial today and find answers on the fly, or master something new and useful. This will explain why comparing the relationship between functional and object-oriented is so important and relevant.
On the one hand, functional programmers can often look down on their OO counterparts. Functional programs can be very terse and elegant, packing a lot of behavior into very few lines of code. Functional programmers will make the case that in a multicore world, you need to avoid mutable state in order to scale out your programs, that programming is basically just math, and that now is the time for everyone to think in terms of functions.
Object-oriented programmers will retort that in actual business environments, very few programmers use functional languages. Object-oriented programming scales out well in terms of developers, and as an industry, we know how to do it. While programming can be viewed as a discipline of applied math, software engineering requires us to match technical solutions to business problems.
The domain modelling and focus on representing real-world objects that OOP encourages in developers helps narrow that gap. Of course, these stereotypes are overplaying the difference. Both groups of programmers are employed to solve similar business problems.
Both groups are working in the same industry. Are they really so different? This report makes the case that a lot of the constructs of good object-oriented design also exist in functional programming. This demonstrates the similarity in terms of higher-level concepts. In Design Patterns , we look at some behavioral design patterns.
Design patterns are commonly used as a vocabulary of shared knowledge amongst object-oriented programmers. Most of the examples in this guide are written in the Java programming language. It is perfectly adequate for this task though and understood by many people. This guide is also motivated by the release of Java 8 and its introduction of lambda expressions to the language. Having said all that, a lot of principles and concepts apply to many other programming languages as well, and I hope that whatever your programming language is, you take something away.
Theoretically this is something that we could have done in Java before with anonymous classes, but it was rarely done because they were so bulky and verbose. We shall also be looking at the syntax of lambda expressions in the Java programming language. As I mentioned in the Introduction , a lot of these ideas go beyond Java; we are just using Java as a lingua-franca: a common language that many developers know well.
We will define a lambda expression as a concise way of describing an anonymous function. Swing is a platform-agnostic Java library for writing graphical user interfaces GUIs. It has a fairly common idiom in which, in order to find out what your user did, you register an event listener. This interface has a single method, actionPerformed , which is called by the button instance when a user actually clicks the on-screen button.
The anonymous inner class provides the implementation of this method. Anonymous inner classes were designed to make it easier for Java programmers to represent and pass around behaviors. There are still four lines of boilerplate code required in order to call the single line of important logic. Another difference between this example and the anonymous inner class is how we declare the variable event. Previously, we needed to explicitly provide its type— ActionEvent event.
What is happening under the hood is that javac is inferring the type of the variable event from its context—here, from the signature of add ActionListener. A common idiom you may have noticed is the creation of a lambda expression that calls a method on its parameter.
If we want a lambda expression that gets the name of an artist, we would write the following:. If we were to write the previous lambda expression using a method reference, it would look like this:. The standard form is Classname::methodName. You can use method references in the same places as lambda expressions. You can also call constructors using the same abbreviated syntax. If you were to use a lambda expression to create an Artist , you might write:.
This code is not only shorter but also a lot easier to read. Another thing to notice here is that method references automatically support multiple parameters, as long as you have the right functional interface. Here is how you would create a String array:. In fact, method references are really making the concept of first-class functions explicit. This is the idea that we can pass behavior around and treat it like another value.
For example, we can compose functions together. This makes parameterizing code by behavior a lot more attractive. This is key to functional programming, so key in fact that it has an associated name: higher-order functions. Higher-order functions are just functions, methods, that return other functions or take functions as a parameter. The principles act as a set of guidelines to help you implement code that is easy to maintain and extend over time. Each of the principles corresponds to a set of potential code smells that can exist in your code, and they offer a route out of the problems caused.
The goal here is to both show functional and object-oriented programming are related, and also what object-oriented programmers can learn from a functional style.
An inevitable fact of software development is that requirements change over time. Whether because a new feature needs to be added, your understanding of your problem domain or customer has changed, or you need your application to be faster, over time software must evolve.
When the requirements of your software change, the responsibilities of the classes and methods that implement these requirements also change. If you have a class that has more than one responsibility, when a responsibility changes, the resulting code changes can affect the other responsibilities that the class possesses.
This possibly introduces bugs and also impedes the ability of the code base to evolve. If the implementer chose to put both the responsibilities of tabulation and rendering into one class, then that class would have two reasons for change.
You might wish to change the rendering in order to generate an alternative output, such as HTML. You might also wish to change the level of detail in the BalanceSheet itself. This is a good motivation to decompose this problem at the high level into two classes: one to tabulate the BalanceSheet and one to render it. The single-responsibility principle is stronger than that, though.
A class should not just have a single responsibility: it should also encapsulate it. In other words, if I want to change the output format, then I should have to look at only the rendering class and not at the tabulation class. This is part of the idea of a design exhibiting strong cohesion. A class is cohesive if its methods and fields should be treated together because they are closely related. If you tried to divide up a cohesive class, you would result in accidentally coupling the classes that you have just created.
Well lambda expressions make it a lot easier to implement the single-responsibility principle at the method level. For the most part, our code here is dealing with looping over numbers. If we follow the single-responsibility principle, then iteration should be encapsulated elsewhere. If we want to count the number of primes for a very large upTo value, then we want to be able to perform this operation in parallel. Here we use the range method to count the numbers between 0 and upTo , filter them to check that they really are prime, and then count the result.
So, we can use higher-order functions in order to help us easily implement the single-responsibility principle. Software entities should be open for extension, but closed for modification. Again, the problem is that a single feature request or change to your software can ripple through the code base in a way that is likely to introduce new bugs. How can you extend the functionality of a class without having to change its implementation? The actual answer is that you rely on an abstraction and can plug in new functionality that fits into this abstraction.
We can also use higher-order functions and immutability to achieve similar aims in a functional style. One way of designing the MetricDataGraph class would be to have each of the new metric points pushed into it from the agent that gathers the data. But this would mean that every time we wanted to add in a new set of time points to the plot, we would have to modify the MetricDataGraph class.
Each set of metric data can then implement the TimeSeries interface and be plugged in. Higher-order functions also exhibit the same property of being open for extension, despite being closed for modification. A good example of this is the ThreadLocal class. The ThreadLocal class provides a variable that is special in the sense that each thread has a single copy for it to interact with.
Its static withInitial method is a higher-order function that takes a lambda expression that represents a factory for producing an initial value. We pass in a different factory method to withInitial and get an instance of ThreadLocal with different behavior. We can also generate completely different behavior by passing in a different lambda expression. Observable immutability means that from the perspective of any other object, a class is immutable; implementation immutability means that the object never mutates.
A good example of a class that proclaims its immutability but actually is only observably immutable is java. String , as it caches the hash code that it computes the first time its hashCode method is called.
I mention immutable objects in the context of this report because they are a fairly familiar concept within functional programming. Of course, you still need to be careful in order to avoid modifying state elsewhere in your program. Immutable objects are also of particular interest because they are inherently thread-safe.
There is no internal state to mutate, so they can be shared between different threads. In Java 8, any lambda expression that gets passed into a higher-order function is represented by a functional interface. The higher-order function calls its single method, which leads to different behavior depending upon which lambda expression gets passed in.
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The books cover many examples, and it also demonstrates how to make the best use of them. This book presents the language from a practical point of view. The book helps you to learn object-oriented programming concepts such as encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism. The book describes real problems and solutions, not only language features. The book covers the language and standard library together: You will also learn how to use the library right from the start. This pocket-sized reference book makes an ideal reference book to carry about, ensure that it will be handy when needed.
C++ Class and Object with Example
Then, this is the right destination for you. Object-oriented programming intends to achieve real-world entities such as inheritance, hiding, polymorphism, etc in programming. The main purpose of OOP is to tie together the data and the functions that operate on them thus no other part of the code can enter this data except that function. Mainly, the course of the Object-Oriented Programming is intended to implement a broad study of the C programming language. OOPs is an extension of the C programming language.
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Sign In. Object-oriented programming Some Java books introduce classes and objects immediately; others begin with procedural programming and transition to object-oriented more gradually.
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One of my favorite professional activities is speaking at software conferences. Join the O'Reilly online learning platform. Get a free trial today and find answers on the fly, or master something new and useful.
The possibilities are endless with these languages, which is why ventures of all shapes and sizes employ them due to their scalability and viability. As the languages stay on top, the number of people learning it is increasing by the minute. Irrespective of your programming proficiency, you find a book that suits your requirements.
C++ introduced the concepts of Classes and Objects. Here is a curated list of Top C++ books that should be part of any C++ developer's library.
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Apr 16, at pm UTC. I apologize for all of the probably pointless questions I have been posting lately. I am sure I could just Google the answers but I feel like I get a more complete understanding of things when I ask them here. The difference is in how you think about the problems. OOP languages lend themselves more easily to writing programs in which you model self-contained lumps of data and function; an "OOP language" will contain a number of features that make the creation and use of self-contained lumps of data and function easy.
I cant fine the PDF in the first link. I'm good with java but very very poor with DS and DS is required in all the good companies so I need your feedback. I can't believe you exist until i found you. Thanks a lot for shaping my java and DS. Do more! If you seriously want to become a good programmer , I suggest to take a look at these books to learn Algorithms.
Classes also determine the forms of objects.
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