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- The role of attention and familiarity in face identification
- Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience
- Cummings Neuropsychiatry PDF
- The Major Branches of Psychology
Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems and their subdivisions, the autonomic and somatic nervous systems , including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. While neurology is a nonsurgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery. Significant overlap occurs between the fields of neurology and psychiatry , with the boundary between the two disciplines and the conditions they treat being somewhat nebulous.
The role of attention and familiarity in face identification
Authors Jeffrey L. Cummings, M. The Augustus S. Cummings is a prolific investigator and writer. He has authored or edited 18 books and has broad interests in neuropsychiatry and the interface of neuroschience and society. Michael S. Mega, M. His research interests lie in neuroimaging, with a focus on the cerebral correlates of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. He is widely published on this and related themes. Authors: Cummings,, Jeffrey L. Dedication To our wives, Inese and Susan To our daughters, Juliana and Leda To our fellows, colleagues, and international collaborators whose interest, enthusiasm, and dedication have inspired and invigorated us.
Preface Clinical Neuropsychiatry, by Jeffrey L. Cummings, was published in and represented an integration of behavioral neurology and biological psychiatry into a single volume devoted to explicating brain -behavior relationships. The volume was clinically oriented and intended for practitioners caring for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Since Clinical Neuropsychiatry was originally published, there has been a tremendous explosion of information pertinent to neuropsychiatry ranging from molecular biology of neuropsychiatric disorders on one end of the spectrum to neuro -ethology and the neurobiological basis of social interactions and culture at the other.
Advances in neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, genetics, neuroimaging, and neuropharmacology have progressed at an unprecedented rate. New treatments have evolved for nearly all neuropsychiatric illnesses and neuropsychopharmacology has become a demanding discipline in its own right.
A successor to the book was badly overdue. This volume represents an attempt to integrate the most salient evolving information into a single comprehensive presentation. The clinical emphasis of its predecessor has been maintained and enriched by the integration with evolving neuroscience information.
It might be argued that books are obsolete, since information is evolving rapidly and is updated more quickly through electronic resources, thus obviating the need for books such as this that are frozen in time. The dramatic increase in information, however, has made the need for an approach to delivering care to patients and of integrating the expanding information base into a systematic clinical framework even greater.
Thus, the emphasis of this volume. We hope that those who read and study this volume find that their understanding of brain -behavior relationships is enhanced, their clinical assessment and management enriched, and the quality of life of their patients and their families improved. Los Angeles, California J. Acknowledgments This volume represents a progress report in the evolution of neuropsychiatry and of the authors' understanding of neuropsychiatric disease and treatment.
As such it is another step in the long march toward understanding central nervous system function and disease. Many have contributed to our passion for neuropsychiatry; chief among these is the late D. Frank Benson, M. Benson's enthusiasm for behavioral neurology, neuropsychiatry, and for teaching had a profound and lasting influence on the authors and his vision of neuropsychiatry permeates the pages of this book. National and international colleagues too numerous to list have encouraged us through their enthusiasm and by sharing their knowledge.
The authors have benefited greatly from the stimulating interaction provided by the many fellows of the UCLA Dementia and Behavioral Neuroscience Research Fellowship as well as the international trainees who have been members of our training program. Shaw Memorial Fund has contributed importantly to our endeavors. The tremendous. Finally, without the love and support of our families, none of the activities encompassed within this book would have been possible.
Inese and Juliana wife and daughter of J. Chapter 1 Introduction All human experience, emotion, motivation, behavior, and activity are products of brain function. This basic premise underlies contemporary approaches to understanding human behavior and the effects of brain dysfunction in the clinical discipline of neuropsychiatry.
This approach does not deny the important influence of interpersonal relationships, social and cultural influences, and the modulating influence of the environment on human emotion and behavior; the brain based approach acknowledges that all of these environmental influences are mediated through central nervous system CNS structures and function.
For every deviant environmental event there will be a corresponding change in CNS function, and when CNS function is altered there will be corresponding changes in the behavior or experience of the individual. Neuropsychiatry is the clinical discipline devoted to understanding the neurobiological basis, optimal assessment, natural history, and most efficacious treatment of disorders of the nervous system with behavioral manifestations.
Neuropsychiatrists seek to understand the disorders of the CNS responsible for abnormal behavior. This volume presents a contemporary view of neuropsychiatry and the advances in neuroscience applicable to understanding and interpreting human behavior.
This introductory chapter summarizes themes and perspectives. Advances In Neuroscience The last few decades have seen an incredible advance in neuroscience applicable to neuropsychiatry. Studies in genetics and molecular biology have revealed mutations that cause major neuropsychiatric disturbances including familial Alzheimer's disease, familial Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Wilson's disease, and many developmental disorders.
Risk genes for some conditions such as Alzheimer's disease have also been identified. These do not by themselves cause disease, but they increase the likelihood that individuals will express the disorder in the course of their lifetime. Genetic testing, available for many conditions, allows P. Identification of a mutation in an asymptomatic individual, for example, reveals critical aspects of his or her ultimate fate, knowledge not to be taken lightly.
Advances in developmental neurobiology have informed our understanding of congenital malformations of the CNS, many with severe associated behavioral disturbances. Progress also has been made in understanding hyperactivity -attention deficit disorder, autism and pervasive developmental disorders, and childhood epilepsies and movement disorders.
In addition, there has been an evolving integration of developmental and maturational perspectives to allow a life span approach to human neurological disease and neuropsychiatric conditions.
Even late -onset disorders such as Alzheimer's disease interact with educational level and native intellectual abilities to determine the time of onset and duration of the adult disorder. Advances in neuroimaging have been important in the growth of neuropsychiatry.
Structural imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging MRI have revealed,. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography PET and single photon emission computed tomography SPECT provide critical information about brain function in neuropsychiatric illness.
Patients with Alzheimer's disease, for example, have reduced glucose metabolism in the parietal lobes; when psychosis and agitation are present, frontal and anterior temporal hypometabolism is also evident. This approach may eventually prove sensitive to the earliest changes in incipient neurological conditions. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides information about the chemical composition of brain structures, reveals abnormalities in individual diseases, and may provide a window on CNS concentrations of some therapeutic agents.
Together these technologies provide a diverse armamentarium of techniques for diagnosing CNS disease and understanding their pathophysiology. Progress in neuropsychology also informs contemporary neuropsychiatry.
There have been substantial advances, for example, in recognizing and characterizing memory subroutines including registration, consolidation, and retrieval. Similarly, the! Many diseases are much better understood as a result of the application of basic science. Idiopathic neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia have been the subject of intensive scientific scrutiny.
Regional changes in brain structure have been identified and genetic and environmental contributors to the syndrome discovered. The pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease has been revealed in substantial detail including processing of the amyloid precursor protein to free amyloid " protein leading to neurotoxicity and the formation of neuritic plaques. Marked progress has been made in pharmacotherapy. Neurology and neuropsychiatry have changed from clinical disciplines with few available treatments to clinical arenas with major neurotherapeutic options.
Epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, psychosis, depression, obsessive -compulsive disorder, anxiety, sleep disorders, substance use disorders, and eating disorders have all been the subjects of development of new pharmacotherapeutic agents capable of P.
The advances in all of these areas of neuroscience provide the basis for the update of neuropsychiatry developed in this volume. Foundations Of Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychiatry includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurologic illness and neurobiology of idiopathic psychiatric disorders. Two disciplines have been instrumental in the development of neuropsychiatry!
Biological psychiatry received its primary impetus from the success of biological treatment of psychiatric disorders. Drugs that increase the levels of monoamines and serotonin relieve depressive symptoms and drugs that block dopamine receptors reduce psychosis.
These observations imply but do not prove that transmitter disturbances are involved in the mediation of these behavioral disorders. In biological psychiatry, the chemistry of behavior is emphasized, with increasingly precise characterization of transmitter receptors and signal transduction mechanisms. Behavioral neurology is the other cornerstone of neuropsychiatry. This discipline was revived in the s by Norman Geschwind with his description of the disconnection syndromes.
Drawing heavily on techniques derived from neuropsychology, behavioral neurology provided detailed descriptions of language disorders, memory disturbances, visuospatial abnormalities, agnosias, and dementias associated with focal brain damage or degenerative CNS disease.
In behavioral neurology, a probing mental status examination is used to aid in neuroanatomical interpretation of deficit syndromes. Behavioral neurologists have investigated the deficit disorders of aphasia, amnesia, agnosia, alexia, agraphia, and amusia but do not focus on the positive symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, mania, personality alterations, or obsessive -compulsive disorder associated with brain dysfunction.
Thus neither biological psychiatry nor behavioral neurology provides a comprehensive view of brain -behavior. Neuropsychiatry draws on both disciplines in addition to recent advances in neuroscience to provide a comprehensive understanding of the relationship of brain and behavior.
Terminology The words organic and functional are eschewed in this volume as they are misleading in their assumptions.
Many disorders called! Although imperfect, the term idiopathic will be used to describe psychiatric disorders whose etiologies and pathophysiology have yet to be revealed, and neurologic or toxic -metabolic will be used when specific types of brain disorders have been identified that account for behavioral changes. These terms escape some of the objectionable assumptions associated with the traditional terminology. Clinical Approach The focus of this volume is on clinical utility and the relationship of clinical observations to the evolving neuroscience.
Assessment of signs and symptoms, differential diagnosis, application of technology to explore diagnostic hypotheses, and pharmacotherapy are emphasized.
The mental -status examination is borrowed largely from behavioral neurology and is used to help characterize a patient's attention, verbal output, memory, constructional skills, and executive abilities.
This approach is augmented by interview techniques taken from psychiatry that emphasize anamnesis and help disclose subjective phenomena such as delusions, hallucinations, and intrusive thoughts. Mental status examination is complemented by elementary neurological and general physical examinations. Occasionally objections are raised to the probing mental status examination as being offensive to patients and insufficiently sensitive to their feelings of failure.
A detailed mental status examination can be successfully achieved, however, by an expert clinician without the loss of respect for the patient's sense of vulnerability and exposure. Most errors in neuropsychiatric diagnosis are of omission, not. Dynamically oriented psychiatrists and psychotherapists may object to the absence of dynamic considerations in the neuropsychiatric approach proffered here. Some have charged that neuropsychiatry attempts to turn a brainless psychiatry into a mindless neurology.
Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience
Learn more. Phone: The Cognitive Behavioral Neurology Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital offers comprehensive diagnostic and treatment services to patients with disorders of the brain affecting language, memory, problem solving and other intellectual functions, as well as patients with neurological diseases affecting emotional function and behavior. We accept "self-referred" patients as well as those referred by primary care physicians or specialists. At the first appointment, the patient along with a family member or caregiver meets with one of our physicians, who performs a physical examination and obtains details about the patient's history. Moving forward, the physician might choose to schedule further outpatient interviews and examinations. These generally involve extensive evaluations of the patient's cognitive abilities and behavioral tendencies.
How is attention allocated during face identification? Previous work using famous and unfamiliar faces suggests that either no attention or a special attentional mechanism is required. We used a conventional attentional blink AB procedure to measure face identification with temporarily reduced attention. The participants viewed a rapid series of face images with one embedded nonface abstract pattern T1. They judged the texture of T1 and then detected a prespecified face T2 presented at varying lags after T1. T2 was either famous or unfamiliar, as were distractor faces.
Cummings Neuropsychiatry PDF
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience Vols. Cell Biology. Instructors of behavioral neuroscience are faced with the challenge of how to teach the course's complex material in an accessible and relatable, yet comprehensive way for undergraduate students. Behavioral Neuroscience. Methods in Behavioral Research: 9th Edition.
Bodani, M. Cummings and Michael S. Pp The authors therefore clearly set forth on an ambitious undertaking.
Neuropsychology Conferences Neuropsychology What is neuropsychology? Clinical neuropsychology evaluates and treats the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes that may occur due to brain injury. Peg Dawson. Neuropsychology Conferences in Japan is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and university practitioners to present research activities that might want to attend events, meetings, seminars, congresses, workshops, summit, and symposiums.
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The Major Branches of Psychology
Я должен тебе кое-что сказать. - Она не пошевелилась. - Когда я все закончу, я сообщу тебе код вызова лифта. И тогда ты решишь, уходить тебе или .
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Она знала, что он перемножает цифры и намертво запоминает словари, не хуже ксерокса. - Таблица умножения, - сказал Беккер. При чем здесь таблица умножения? - подумала Сьюзан. - Что он хочет этим сказать. - Четыре на шестнадцать, - повторил профессор. - Лично я проходил это в четвертом классе. Сьюзан вспомнила стандартную школьную таблицу.