File Name: food chain and food web .zip
Ecology and Environment is an important topic from the point of view of competitive exams. Here in the article, we have covered all the functions of Ecosystems in detail. The ecosystem is said to be the structural and functional unit of Biosphere. It includes all living beings interacting and influencing each other and the environment surrounding them.
Food Webs and Food Chains Worksheet
Ecology and Environment is an important topic from the point of view of competitive exams. Here in the article, we have covered all the functions of Ecosystems in detail.
The ecosystem is said to be the structural and functional unit of Biosphere. It includes all living beings interacting and influencing each other and the environment surrounding them. The functional factors of the ecosystem keep the components running together. Functions of an ecosystem can be studied as an exchange of energy amongst different natural processes that are taking place in plant and animal communities of different biomes of the world. All exchange processes help in sustaining life on the planet as well as the production of biomass and the decomposition of organic matter.
All these functions take place through balanced and controlled processes. Energy flow - Energy is the primary force responsible for all activities in an ecosystem. The flow of energy from producers to top consumers is called energy flow which is unidirectional. Food chains are dynamic in nature which link the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem. One organism eats other and is eaten by another.
A sequence of organisms which feed on one another and transfer energy from a food chain. Each food chain depicts a vital pathway for energy and the nutrients to follow through the ecosystem. The African-Arab scientist Al-Jahiz introduced the concept of the food chain for the first time in the 9 th Century AD and it was later popularized in a book by Charles Elton in Note: Gross Primary Production GPP is the total rate at which the radiant energy is stored by the process of photosynthesis in the green plants.
This is also known as total photosynthesis or total assimilation. Grazing food chains - It starts from the food making green plants which are succeeded by herbivores and then by carnivores. For example- in terrestrial ecosystem grass is eaten up by caterpillar, which is by lizard and lizard is eaten by a snake.
Detritus food chains - It starts from the dead organic matter of decaying plants and animal bodies to the detrivores organisms which in turn make food for protozoan to carnivores etc.
One such example is depicted in the figure below. These two food chains are different on the basis of the source of energy for the first level consumer. These two food chains are linked; initial energy source for detritus food chain is waste material and dead organic matter from grazing food chain. Ecological pyramids:. TThe steps of trophic levels expressed in a diagrammatic way where the food producers form the base of the pyramids and the top carnivore forms the tip.
The pyramid consists of a number of horizontal bars depicting specific trophic levels which are arranged according to the increase in energy level. Pyramid of number - This deals with the relationship between the number of organisms at different trophic levels. For example in the grassland food chain, the number of grasses are more than the number of herbivores that feed upon them and the number of herbivores is in turn more than the number of carnivores.
So, the pyramid so formed is upright. The pyramid of number can be inverted also, i. Pyramid of biomass - In this approach, individuals in each trophic level are weighted instead of being counted. This gives us a pyramid of biomass that is the total dry weight of all organisms at each trophic at a particular time.
However, the pyramid of biomass showing aquatic ecosystem may be inverted. For example, in a pond, phytoplankton act as main producers who have very short life cycles and turn-over rate is high which are rapidly replaced by new plants.
Click here to download pdf:. Daily Practice Quizzes, Attempt Here. Shweta Mishra Nov 17, Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Kona Nov 17, Rachnasingh Jadaun Nov 17, Sitaram Thakur Nov 17, Saddam Attari Nov 17, Anand Singh Nov 17, Gunjan Sawle Nov 18, Vikas Thanos Nov 18, Home Other State Exams Article. Arpit Kumar Jain Read in Hindi. Share via. Functions of an ecosystem can be studied under three heads: Energy flow Nutrient's cycle biogeochemical cycle Ecological succession or development Energy flow - Energy is the primary force responsible for all activities in an ecosystem.
Food chain Food chains are dynamic in nature which link the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem. Trophic levels in the food chain: Autotrophs or Producers They are food-producing organisms who produce food for all other organisms in the ecosystem. They are usually green plants and prepare food in the presence of sunlight by the process of photosynthesis. Consumers Next trophic levels are for consumers who depend upon others for food.
Primary consumers- The animals which eat the plants directly are called primary consumers or herbivores e. Secondary consumers -They are both carnivores and omnivores animals that eat both plant and animals. Example-frog, dog, cat and tiger Tertiary consumers : Animals that eat carnivores. Example-pig, bear and man. Decomposers These organisms break down dead organic material and waste products to simpler compounds and thereby help in the decomposition of decaying matter.
They work on the dead remains of organisms at each trophic level and help in recycling of the nutrients e. There are two types of food chains: 1. One such example is depicted in the figure below These two food chains are different on the basis of the source of energy for the first level consumer. Food web A food chain represents only one dimension of food or energy flow through an ecosystem and shows a simple relationship between components.
An ecosystem consists of many interrelated food chains. So, interconnected food chains in an ecosystem make a food web.
If any of the food chains are removed then successive food chain will be harmfully affected. One animal may be part of several different food chains. The working between trophic levels is that at every level in a food chain or food web, the energy received by the organism is used by itself and the leftover energy is passed on to the next trophic level.
Ecological pyramids: TThe steps of trophic levels expressed in a diagrammatic way where the food producers form the base of the pyramids and the top carnivore forms the tip. The ecological pyramids are of three categories: Pyramid of numbers Pyramid of biomass Pyramid of energy or productivity Pyramid of number - This deals with the relationship between the number of organisms at different trophic levels.
The pyramid showing the terrestrial ecosystem is upright. Pyramid of energy - A pyramid of energy is a graphical representation of how much energy from the sun is stored as new biomass at each successive trophic level. It helps in comparing the functional role of different trophic levels.
This reflects the law of thermodynamics, with the conversion of solar energy to heat energy and chemical energy. Score Better. Go Gradeup. Share this article. Member since Jun Very nice. Thank you for the pdf edition. Rachnasingh Jadaun Nov 17, Report. Thanks sir. Sitaram Thakur Nov 17, Report. Saddam Attari Nov 17, Report. And for PDF also. Anand Singh Nov 17, Report. Thanks Arpit Kumar Jain. Very good. Gunjan Sawle Nov 18, Report.
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Food chains and food webs
Green plants make their own food. They use the energy from the sun to make their own food. Some of this food is used, and some is stored in the roots, stems, and leaves. All living things need food to give them the energy to grow and move. A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food.
Food chains & food webs
Food Webs pp Cite as. The problems concerning causality are classic in the philosophy of science, and sometimes they have also found their way into ecology and evolutionary biology e. In addition to unsolved philosophical issues, problems concerning general causes and effects in food webs, such as if population dynamic processes or energetics really are the causes for patterns in food web structure, arise because food web patterns and processes may affect each other reciprocally, as shown throughout this book see also Levin, Hence it is useful to pragmatically rephrase the question: What factors affect what properties of food webs? This question brings into focus the interesting issues concerning the linkages between food web patterns and processes, as exemplified by many of the contributions to the following section.
Comparing Numbers. Daily Math Review. Division Basic. Division Long Division.
Let us take a look at the food chain and a food web and the difference between them. Materials 1. Grazing food chain: This type of food chain starts from the living green plants goes to grazing herbivores, and on to carnivores. What is the top predator? If you print it out on card stock and laminate it, it will last through many uses.
Every living thing needs energy to live and grow. Animals and plants get their energy from food. Most plants use sunlight, water, and air to make their own food. Animals cannot make food. Many animals eat plants and get energy from the food the plants make.
Боли он не чувствовал и продолжал мчаться вперед по лабиринтам улочек Санта-Круса. Халохот настойчиво преследовал свою жертву. Вначале он хотел выстрелить Беккеру в голову, но, будучи профессионалом, решил не рисковать. Целясь в торс, он сводил к минимуму возможность промаха в вертикальной и горизонтальной плоскостях. Эта тактика себя оправдала.
Вопрос национальной безопасности. За дверью послышалось движение, раздались голоса. Он постучал. Послышался голос с сильным немецким акцентом: - Ja. Беккер молчал. - Ja. Дверь слегка приоткрылась, и на него уставилось круглое немецкое лицо.
Тогда почему они послали не профессионального агента, а университетского преподавателя. Выйдя из зоны видимости бармена, Беккер вылил остатки напитка в цветочный горшок. От водки у него появилось легкое головокружение.
Скорее всего идет по его следу пешком. Беккер с трудом вел мотоцикл по крутым изломам улочки. Урчащий мотор шумным эхо отражался от стен, и он понимал, что это с головой выдает его в предутренней тишине квартала Санта-Крус. В данный момент у него только одно преимущество - скорость.
Внезапно камера отъехала в сторону, под деревья. В кадре возник мужчина в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, в руке он держал большой портфель. Выйдя на открытое место и бросив взгляд на корчащегося на земле Танкадо, он задвигал пальцами, словно исполнял ими какой-то причудливый танец над коробочкой, которую держал в руке.