Hydrometallurgy Fundamentals And Applications Pdf

hydrometallurgy fundamentals and applications pdf

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This study concentrated on fundamentals and technical aspects of biohydrometallurgy. O'keefe, the effects of certain impurities and their interactions on zinc electrowinning.

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To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Hydrometallurgy review. Dr Abhilash. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. IntroductionLanthanum is light group rare earth element with atomic number 57 and atomic weight Whilst lanthanum found in traces in the ores of aluminium, iron, zinc and gold Maksimovic and Panto, ;Frietsch and Perdahl, ;Xu et al.

Monazite deposits in India, Malaysia, Australia, Brazil, China, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and the United States, constitutes the second largest segment while bastenite deposits constitutes larger portion of world's rare earth resources, occurs mainly in China and Australia Clark, ;Wood, aWood, , bChi et al. In India, Monatize is found to be association with heavy minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon etc.

Lanthanum content in unoxidized ores ranges from 20 to pm and averages 30 ppm, its direct variation in content with potassium and aluminium suggest that the lanthanum is concentrated in clay intensively exits in concentrates of carbocaneous materials from host rocks and unoxidized ores ranged from to ppm Radtke, ;Gupta and Krishnamurthy, Allanite and cerite also contain lanthanum, but these ores are not mined for their lanthanum content in particular Table 1.

The reserves of this element are thought to be in the region of 6 mt. Despite being one of the rare earths, lanthanum is probably one of the least rare, occurring in a tonnage similar to that of lead and tin combined Hydrometallurgy Golev et al. Lanthanum metal itself is produced by reacting lanthanum fluoride and calcium metal, however lanthanum is only commercial in its other forms such as, lanthanum oxide, carbonate, chloride, fluoride, nitrate and sulphate Gschneidner, ;Gschneidner et al.

But, the high price of lanthanum twinned with absence of reliable sources and long term production has limited its commercial applications. Lanthanum is a rare and expensive metal because of its scarce distribution and difficulties associated with its extraction Stwertka, ;Emsley, ;Gray, , Binnemans et al. There are no such commercial uses for pure lanthanum metal, but there are for its alloys, although its compounds have been found wider applications in automobile catalytic convertors, ceramics, fluid catalytic cracking, glass additives, battery alloys, phosphors, glass polishing industries.

Lanthanum hydroxide is used for adsorption of phosphates from waste water under the influence of chlorides, sulphates, nitrates and hydrogen carbonate and even lanthanum phosphates monoliths act as efficient perchlorate adsorbents Sankar et al.

The applications of lanthanum are increasing because of its significant chemical properties over other metals. The recovery of lanthanum from its ores in substantial quantity usually involves pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical process or combined pyro-hydro metallurgical process.

However, the energy consumption is higher in pyrometallurgical processes. Lanthanum found ameliorated in slags, residues, tailings and primarily produced as a by product during processing of various ores.

Currently, hydrometallurgical processes, which mainly involve leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation are most commonly used for lanthanum recovery.

In this review, the metallurgical processes involving the intricate ways to recover lanthanum from various resources, depending on the different types and amounts of impurities are reviewed in consideration of selecting processes to recover lanthanum and incorporating the process for the production of the metal in bulk quantity.

The selectivity of extraction can be improved using biosorption as a technique comparative to solvent extraction and co precipitation, which also reviewed in present work. Monazite is found throughout the world in placer deposits, beach sands, and is also a component of the Bayan Obo deposit Thompson, In India, the estimate of monazite is Monazite having high chemical and thermal stability, when attacked by strong hot acid led to transformation of phosphate ion to di-hydrogen phosphate salt and phosphoric acid, bequeathing the metal ions as water soluble salts which spiflicate the phosphate matrix present in the mineral Jiang et al.

Metallurgical processing of monazite results in pulverization of rare earth complexes due to formation of phosphides. So, the separation of individual metal led to an essential requirement to remove phosphorus from the ore, which decompose at higher temperature due to their high thermal stability. Chi et al. Pressure leaching, electro-generated chlorine leaching and concentrated sulphuric acid leaching were performed to investigate the leaching of lanthanum and other rare earth elements, derived from monazite concentrate at various temperature ranges Shin et al.

Pyro-hydrometallurgy extraction of rare earths constituting lanthanum, of original and dephosphorized Korean monazite has been demonstrated by acid treatment.

Lanthanum recovery is slightly higher in case of alkali beneficiated sample about However in India, extraction of rare earth from monazite is commercial in operation. Murthy and Gupta studied the sulfuric acid process for the recovery from monazite containing lathanum. In hydrochloric acid dissolution, 1. Precipitation was carried out three times using ammonium hydroxide.

After 3rd precipitation, So the selective precipitation process gives high purity within shorter time and with lower cost although the solvent extraction process gives higher recovery Soe et al. El-Nadi deduced the synergistic separation of lanthanum and neodymium derived from Egyptian monazite, using organophosphorus reagents namely trioctylphosphine oxide TOPO and trialkylphosphine oxide TRPO in kerosene and the suggested process for the extraction of lanthanum from monazite shown in Fig.

However, the conventional methods e. Wen-zhong et al. However, its concentration enriched in red mud obtained as a by-product in Bayer's treatment for alumina production.

Mohapatra et al. Bauxite containing high aluminium hydroxides, largely used for production of alumina through the Bayer's process based on digestion with sodium hydroxide under elevated pressure and temperature , since the overall refining led to production of large quantity of solid waste called red mud or bauxite residue Glenister and Thornber, ;Anand et al.

Among its complex chemical and mineralogical characteristics, association of rare earths is reported in red mud matrix Mohapatra et al. In India, lanthanum content in red mud varies from 70 to ppm, which is found to be association with Al-Si matrix Mohapatra et al.

Extraction of lanthanum from red mud via hydrometallurgical route is proven to be useful due to environmental concerns. Lanthanum is found to be associated with rare earth mineral hydroxyl bastnaesite Nd, La. Using 0. Process flow sheet for the recovery of lanthanum double sulphate saltfrom bastnasite concentrate. Abhilash et al. It was found to achieve Whilst separation feasibility was checked with different extractants, it has been found that Cyanex had higher specificity for lanthanum compared to DEHPA and Cyanex with 0.

However complete purification of lanthanum extraction is under study from Indian red mud Abhilash et al. Phosphate rock and it by-productsPhosphorite, phosphate rock or rock phosphate is a sedimentary rock which constitutes higher content of phosphate bearing minerals. However phosphate rock contains lanthanides ranges 0.

While in the production of elemental phosphor, slag produced called phosphogypsum which have lanthanides averages 0. It is reported that rare earths are less incorporated in the phosphogypsum, if leaching was performed at lower temperature and lower acid concentration Altschuler et al.

Wang et al. PhosphogypsumPhosphogypsum is the main by-product of the production of phosphoric acid and it is formed by the acidic digestion of phosphate rock Koopman and Witkamp, However the lanthanide concentration averages about 0. About half of the rare earths present in phosphogypsum can be recovered by leaching the phosphogypsum at ambient temperature with 0.

The leaching efficiencies can be increased by a gravity flow of the H 2 SO 4 solution through a column packed with phosphogypsum Lokshin et al. Another method for enhanced H 2 SO 4 leaching is the mechanical activation of phosphogypsum by ball-milling Todorovsky et al. The rare earths containing lanthanum Phosphogypsum, by reaction with ammonium carbonate undergoes decomposition, so that ammonium sulphate fertiliser and calcium carbonate are formed.

When phosphate rock is leached with a HNO 3 solution, all the lanthanum containing rare earths are solubilised as nitrates, thereby by subsequent solvent extraction or precipitation Habashi, Nickel metal hydride spent batteriesNickel-metal hydride batteries NiMH contain rare earths RE and a variety of valuable metals such as nickel and cobalt. While there is a need of recycling of aforementioned batteries due to environmental concerns Reddy et al.

Hydrometallurgical routes are the basis of processing spent Ni-MH batteries for recovering lanthanum and other precious metals. Pietrelli et al. Fernandes et al. The lanthanum oxide used in lenses must be of high purity with meagre or almost free content of other coloured transition metals and rare earth impurities Yu and Chen, It is estimated that upon recycling spent optical glass could yield about t of lanthanum oxides per year, which plays a spectacular role in estimated worldwide end use of lanthanum.

Jiang et al. With the proposed process, lanthanum in the glass was recovered as an aqueous solution of lanthanum chlorides containing Ocean sea nodulesDeep sea nodules generally contains nickel 1. Process flow sheet for the recovery of lanthanum oxide from phosphate rock Habashi, ;Aly and Mohammed, Mishra et al. There are various technologies developed, using pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical process, for the recovery of precious metals unlike rare earths.

However there is complexity in extraction of lanthanum and other rare earths from the slag obtained after pyro-treatment for the recovery of other precious metals except rare earths Acharya et al. Extraction of lanthanum and other rare earths from the sea nodules derived from Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone Korea mining site of the North East Pacific Ocean was investigated with different reagents and the chemical composition were shown in Table 3.

Extraction of lanthanum via hydrometallurgical route was studied from REE slag under the conditions of 1. Leaching kinetics was found to be described in two stages. The initial leaching rate was controlled by chemical reaction, while the apparent activation energy of the chemical reaction rate controlling step was determined to be As leaching of lanthanum increased, the reaction rate was controlled by diffusion through an ash layer.

The apparent activation energy of the second stage was determined to be The leaching rate and extent of leaching of lanthanum from the slag increased with an increase in leaching temperature Kim et al. Alternate methods of separating lanthanumThe conventional methodologies like solvent extraction and ion-exchange has disadvantages such as high requirement of reagents, secondary metabolites, and low selectivity in addition to more time consumption Chunhua, ;Gupta and Krishnamurthy, ;Kratochvil and Volesky, ;Takahashi et al.

Now-a-days adsorption catching an eye with an emerging technique of bio-sorption, with an advantages over traditional way like cost efficient, high efficacy or selectivity for metal extraction, regeneration with no chemical sludge and other metabolite generation with an exclusive characteristics of faster kinetics of adsorption and desorption, and its major applicability in situ process technologies Akkaya, ;Kanazawa and Kamitani, ;Kratochvil and Volesky, ;Palmieri et al.

Adsorption of lanthanum have been attempted using different bioadsorbents like bacteria, activated carbon from rice husk, bamboo charcoal and algae, among which algae was proven to be efficient one for lanthanum uptake Diniz and Volesky, ;Kratochvil and Volesky, ;Palmieri et al. In this context, algae like Sargassum polysystum, Sargassum fluitans showed a potential for lanthanum uptake.

PDF Download Hydrometallurgy: Fundamentals and Applications PDF Full Ebook

With its unique blend of fundamentals, methods, and applications, this text provides a college-level introduction and overview of hydrometallurgy, the chemical processing of metals in aqueous solutions. The author provides an expertly organized collection of information and analytical tools for effective and efficient extraction, concentration, and recovery of metals from ores, concentrates, and recycled or residual materials. Moreover, readers will discover a broad range of hydrometallurgical methods that are both environmentally responsible and economically feasible. This text explores several essential topics that are generally not covered extensively in other hydrometallurgy texts, including aqueous electrometallurgy, aqueous corrosion, environmental hydrometallurgy, and metal utilization in aqueous media. In addition, the text covers such topics as:. Hydrometallurgy also covers environmental regulations as well as remediation technologies.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Hydrometallurgy review.

Request PDF | Hydrometallurgy: Fundamentals and Applications | As the first book to compile the fundamentals, applications, reference.

Hydrometallurgy: Fundamentals and Applications

Heap Leaching: Practice and Fundamentals. Heap leaching as a hydrometallurgical process is one of the cheapest methods and It involves a series of chemical processes, through which the mineral ores are piled into the form of a heap, and a leach solution is spread over the ore surface to leach metal from the heap. Heap leaching HL is a flexible and economic gold ore processing method used to extract gold from low-grade gold ores.

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Removal of impurity metals plays a very important role in the final grade and quality of the target metals recovered in hydrometallurgical processes.

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Hydrometallurgical Process Fundamentals

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As the first book to compile the fundamentals, applications, reference information and analytical tools on the topic, Hydrometallurgy presents a condensed collection of information that can be PDF · Request permissions.