Different Types Of Protocols And Their Functions Pdf

different types of protocols and their functions pdf

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What Is a Network Protocol, and How Does It Work?

This tutorial explains types of network protocols and their functions in details. Understanding these basic network protocols with functions will help you in managing network effectively. Learn how the most common types of network protocols works in computer network. The main difference between the two protocols is that TCP uses a connection-oriented transport, while UDP uses a connectionless type of communication.

When the TCP protocol is used, a special connection is opened up between two network devices, and the channel remains open to transmit data until it is closed. On the other hand, a UDP transmission does not make a proper connection and merely broadcasts its data to the specified network address without any verification of receipt.

For certain types of applications and services, a TCP connection makes more sense, while other types are more efficiently provided by UDP communication. The advantage of TCP is that the transmission is much more reliable because it uses acknowledgement packets to ensure delivery. The advantage of UDP is that there is no connection, so it is much faster without all the checks and acknowledgements going on, but is also less reliable.

It would be very difficult for someone to have to memorize the different IP addresses for the hosts they want to connect to on the network.

A domain name uses words rather than numbers to identify Internet hosts. You would enter. You could use A DNS server translates these addresses. When the browser receives the address, it connects to the Web site.

NAT translates one IP address to another. This can be a source address or a destination address. Two basic implementations of NAT can be used: static and dynamic. With static NAT, a manual translation is performed by an address translation device, translating one IP address to a different one. Typically, static NAT is used to translate destination IP addresses in packets as they come into your network, but you can translate source addresses also. With static address translation, you need to build the translations manually.

If you have devices, you need to create static entries in the address translation table, which is a lot of work. Typically, static translation is done for inside resources that outside people want to access. When inside users access outside resources, dynamic translation is typically used. ICS provides networked computers with the capability to share a single connection to the Internet.

This is called name resolution. WINS supports network client and server computers running Windows. WINS uses a distributed database that is automatically updated with the names of computers currently available and the IP address assigned to each one.

DNS is an alternative for name resolution suitable for network computers with fixed IP addresses. SNMP uses small utility programs called agents to monitor behavior and traffic on the network, in order to gather statistical data.

These agents can be loaded onto managed devices such as hubs, NIC's, servers, routers, and bridges. The gathered data is stored in a MIB management information base. To collect the information in a usable form, a management program console polls these agents and downloads the information from their MIB's, which then can be displayed as graphs, charts and sent to a database program to be analyzed.

Network File System NFS is a distributed file system that allows users to access files and directories located on remote computers and treat those files and directories as if they were local.

Zero Configuration Networking is a set of techniques that automatically create a usable IP network without configuration or special servers. This allows unknowledgeable users to connect computers, networked printers, and other items together and expect them to work automatically. Without Zeroconf or something similar, a knowledgeable user must either set up special servers, like DHCP and DNS, or set up each computer's network settings manualy. Zeroconf currently solves three problems :.

A file-sharing protocol designed to allow networked computers to transparently access files that reside on remote systems over a variety of networks. The SMB protocol defines a series of commands that pass information between computers. SMB uses four message types: session control, file, printer, and message.

It is mainly used by Microsoft Windows equipped computers. SMB works through a client-server approach, where a client makes specific requests and the server responds accordingly. One section of the SMB protocol is specifically for filesystem access, such that clients may make requests to a file server.

The SMB protocol was optimised for local subnet usage, but one could use it to access different subnets across the Internet on which MS Windows file-and-print sharing exploits usually focus. Client computers may have their own hard disks, which are not publicly shared, yet also want access to the shared file systems and printers on the server, and it is for this primary purpose that SMB is best known and most heavily used. The file sharing protocol used in an AppleTalk network. In order for non-Apple networks to access data in an AppleShare server, their protocols must translate into the AFP language.

AFP versions 3. The AFP 2. The LPR component initiates commands such as "print waiting jobs," "receive job," and "send queue state," and the LPD component in the print server responds to them. In networking, these are typically used for backup of primary circuits and for temporary boosts of bandwidth.

These circuits are common when a variety of services, such as voice, video, and data, must traverse the connection and you are concerned about delay issues with the traffic and guaranteed bandwidth. Their advantage over dedicated circuits is that a single device can connect to multiple devices on the same interface.

The downside of these services is that they are not available at all locations, they are difficult to set up and troubleshoot, and the equipment is expensive when compared to equipment used for dedicated circuits.

Packet-switched services are similar to cell-switched services. Whereas cell-switched services switch fixed-length packets called cells, packet-switched services switch variable-length packets.

This feature makes them better suited for data services, but they can nonetheless provide some of the QoS features that cell-switched services provide. Packet switching offers more efficient use of a telecommunication provider's network bandwidth.

With packet switching, the switching mechanisms on the network route each data packet from switch to switch individually over the network using the best-available path. Any one physical link in a packet-switched network can carry packets from many different senders and for many different destinations. Where as in a circuit switched connection, the bandwidth is dedicated to one sender and receiver only.

Integrated Services Digital Network adapters can be used to send voice, data, audio, or video over standard telephone cabling. ISDN adapters must be connected directly to a digital telephone network. Like standard modems, ISDN adapters are available both as internal devices that connect directly to a computer's expansion bus and as external devices that connect to one of a computer's serial or parallel ports.

ISDN can provide data throughput rates from 56 Kbps to 1. In other cases, an NT device separate from the adapter or router must be implemented. Fiber Distributed Data Interface, shares many of the same features as token ring, such as a token passing, and the continuous network loop configuration.

But FDDI has better fault tolerance because of its use of a dual, counter-rotating ring that enables the ring to reconfigure itself in case of a link failure. Each device in the ring attaches to the adjacent device using a two stranded fiber optic cable. Data travels in one direction on the outer strand and in the other direction on the inner strand.

When all devices attached to the dual ring are functioning properly, data travels on only one ring. FDDI transmits data on the second ring only in the event of a link failure. T1 lines are widely used for private networks as well as interconnections between an organizations LAN and the telco.

A T1 line uses two pairs of wire one to transmit, and one to receive. The standard T1 frame is bits long, which holds 24 8-bit voice samples and one synchronization bit with 8, frames transmitted per second. T1 is not restricted to digital voice or to 64 Kbps data streams.

Channels may be combined and the total 1. A T3 line is a super high-speed connection capable of transmitting data at a rate of 45 Mbps. A T3 line represents a bandwidth equal to about regular voice-grade telephone lines, which is wide enough to transmit real time video, and very large databases over a busy network.

A T3 line is typically installed as a major networking artery for large corporations, universities with high-volume network traffic and for the backbones of the major Internet service providers.

Optical Carrier, designations are used to specify the speed of fiber optic networks that conforms to the SONET standard. It provides error detection and correction, as well as flow control, at both the data link layer by LAPB and the network layer by X. Because of its overhead, X. If you have a synchronous digital connection, another protocol, such as Frame Relay or ATM, is much more efficient.

This protocol relies on an elaborate worldwide network of packet-forwarding nodes that can participate in delivering an X.

Some of these varieties are asymmetric with different data rates in the downstream and upstream directions. Others are symmetric. A high-bandwidth digital transmission technology that uses existing phone lines and also allows voice transmissions over the same lines. Most of the traffic is transmitted downstream to the user, generally at rates of Kbps to about 6 Mbps.

Cable modems use a broadband connection to the Internet through cable television infrastructure. These modems use frequencies that do not interfere with television transmission. The word modem comes from Modulate and Demodulate. Because standard telephone lines use analog signals, and computers digital signals, a sending modem must modulate its digital signals into analog signals.

The computers modem on the receiving end must then demodulate the analog signals into digital signals. Modems can be external, connected to the computers serial port by an RS cable or internal in one of the computers expansion slots. Modems connect to the phone line using standard telephone RJ connectors.

A wireless network consists of wireless NICs and access points. Access points act as wireless hubs to link multiple wireless NICs into a single subnet.

Types of Network Protocols Explained with Functions

This tutorial explains types of network protocols and their functions in details. Understanding these basic network protocols with functions will help you in managing network effectively. Learn how the most common types of network protocols works in computer network. The main difference between the two protocols is that TCP uses a connection-oriented transport, while UDP uses a connectionless type of communication. When the TCP protocol is used, a special connection is opened up between two network devices, and the channel remains open to transmit data until it is closed. On the other hand, a UDP transmission does not make a proper connection and merely broadcasts its data to the specified network address without any verification of receipt.

How do Common Networking Protocols Function

A network protocol is an established set of rules that determine how data is transmitted between different devices in the same network. Essentially, it allows connected devices to communicate with each other, regardless of any differences in their internal processes, structure or design. Network protocols are the reason you can easily communicate with people all over the world, and thus play a critical role in modern digital communications. Neither local area networks LAN nor wide area networks WAN could function the way they do today without the use of network protocols.

A protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network. In order for two computers to talk to each other, they must be speaking the same language. Many different types of network protocols and standards are required to ensure that your computer no matter which operating system, network card, or application you are using can communicate with another computer located on the next desk or half-way around the world. The complexity of these layers is beyond the scope of this tutorial; however, they can be simplified into four layers to help identify some of the protocols with which you should be familiar see fig 1. Figure 1 illustrates how some of the major protocols would correlate to the OSI model in order to communicate via the Internet.

Types of Networking Protocols

The functions of protocols are quite essential in the process of Networking.

In the world of technology, there are vast numbers of users' communicating with different devices in different languages. That also includes many ways in which they transmit data along with the different software they implement. So, communicating worldwide will not be possible if there were no fixed 'standards' that will govern the way user communicates for data as well as the way our devices treat those data. Here we will be discussing these standard set of rules.

It is the foundation of any data exchange on the Web and it is a client-server protocol, which means requests are initiated by the recipient, usually the Web browser. A complete document is reconstructed from the different sub-documents fetched, for instance text, layout description, images, videos, scripts, and more. Clients and servers communicate by exchanging individual messages as opposed to a stream of data. The messages sent by the client, usually a Web browser, are called requests and the messages sent by the server as an answer are called responses.

A Network Protocol is a group of rules accompanied by the network.

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Types of Internet Protocols




When we think of the Internet we often think only of the World Wide Web.

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The seven OSI layers use various forms of control information to communicate with their their technical functions, or origin of the protocol introduction, or both. A protocol may noanimalpoaching.org Clarifications and.