File Name: forest rangelands and wildlife importance and significance .zip
Rangeland Systems pp Cite as. Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature, including the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood.
- Rangeland Ecosystem Services: Nature’s Supply and Humans’ Demand
- Forest rangeland relationships
- Forest rangeland relationships
Rangeland , also called Range , any extensive area of land that is occupied by native herbaceous or shrubby vegetation which is grazed by domestic or wild herbivores. The vegetation of ranges may include tallgrass prairies, steppes shortgrass prairies , desert shrublands, shrub woodlands, savannas, chaparrals, and tundras. Temperate and tropical forests that are used for grazing as well as timber production can also be considered rangeland.
Natural resource management NRM is the management of natural resources such as land , water , soil , plants and animals , with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations stewardship. Natural resource management deals with managing the way in which people and natural landscapes interact. It brings together natural heritage management, land use planning, water management, bio-diversity conservation , and the future sustainability of industries like agriculture , mining , tourism , fisheries and forestry. It recognises that people and their livelihoods rely on the health and productivity of our landscapes, and their actions as stewards of the land play a critical role in maintaining this health and productivity.
Rangeland Ecosystem Services: Nature’s Supply and Humans’ Demand
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In the United States, including Alaska, there are about million hectares million acres of rangelands U. Department of Agriculture, U. Forest Service, a. This large area spans vastly different landforms and climates. Within these landforms are a remarkable diversity of rangeland ecosystems, from the wet grasslands of Florida to the desert shrub ecosystems of Wyoming and from the high mountain meadows of Utah to the desert floor of California.
These diverse ecosystems provide a wide array of tangible commodities and values for society. More than half of the nation's rangelands are privately owned, 43 percent are owned by the federal government, and the remainder are owned by state and local governments Joyce , as cited by Box  Figure At least million hectares million acres of the rangelands present at the time of European settlement in the coterminous United States have been converted from rangelands to croplands, forests, urban areas, industrial sites, highways, and reservoirs Klopatek et al.
Although some eastern states such as Florida still have large areas of native rangelands, most of the remaining rangelands are found in 17 western states and Alaska. The western rangelands are the legendary wide open spaces of American history and mythology. Federal and nonfederal rangelands include deserts, grasslands, canyons, tundra, mountains, and riparian areas the grassy or woody areas located on the banks of a natural.
They include wilderness areas and provide habitat for millions of wild animals, plants, and fish, including 74 threatened or endangered species alone on lands administered by BLM W.
Radtkey, Bureau of Land Management, personal communication, They are increasingly used as an immense recreational resource by millions of visitors each year.
Whether publicly or privately owned, rangelands produce tangible products such as forage, wildlife habitat, water, minerals, energy, plant and animal gene pools, recreational opportunities, and some wood products. The chief commercial use of rangelands in the United States—and most of the world—is livestock grazing to produce food, fiber, and draft animals. These are referred to as commodities in this volume. Rangelands also produce intangible products referred to as values such as natural beauty, open spaces, and the opportunity for the ecological study of natural ecosystems.
Grazing lands in the United States include rangelands, forests, and pastures. Federal and nonfederal lands produced some ,, animal-unit months the amount of forage consumed by an animal unit, usually estimated at kilograms [ pounds], in 1 month of forage for beef cattle and sheep in ; federal lands produced 7 percent and non-.
Exact numbers are difficult to determine because statistical sources often define rangeland to include natural grasslands, savannahs, wetlands, deserts, and tundra.
In addition, transition land includes land characteristics for which the predominant vegetation is grass or forage plants used for grazing. Also, although it is noted that more than 50 percent is nonfederal land, it is not clear exactly how much is owned by state and local governments approximately 5 percent of nonfederal land is owned by state and local governments. Another problem in making exact determinations is that the system of deeding and rights use is so complicated, it is sometimes not entirely clear where government ownership ends and private ownership begins.
Rangeland watersheds are important regulators of the quantity and quality of water in streams, lakes, and aquifers an aquifer is a water-bearing layer of permeable rock, sand, or gravel beneath the earth's surface. Management of rangeland watersheds to increase the amount of clean water available for use by irrigators, municipalities, and industry and for recreational purposes is increasingly important.
Federal and non-federal rangelands provide grazing areas for wild herbivores such as deer, antelope, and elk. Many species of fish and wildlife depend on rangelands and their associated streams and lakes for habitat. During some part of the year, rangeland ecosystems are associated with 84 and 74 percent of the total number of mammalian and avian species, respectively, found in the United States Flather and Hoekstra, Soon after explorers discovered the coastlines of the Americas in , they traveled inland, migrating north from Mexico and, later, west from New England.
The growth of the population and commerce in what is now the western United States occurred over what can be viewed as three periods of human interaction with the land:. Each change in the perceived value of the range brought with it changing ecological concerns. In , the Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado introduced the first domestic livestock to the open range of what is now the southwestern United States: cattle, 5, sheep, and 1, horses Wallace, As Spanish missionaries established and fostered outposts in the s in areas that are now Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, they brought an estimated 50, sheep and 20, cattle north from Mexico Wallace, The Mexican government liberally granted rangelands to people interested in establishing ranches in what is now the southwestern United States.
By , the number of cattle in California reached an estimated 3. Rangelands offer many recreational opportunities, including hiking, horseback riding, picnicking, skiing, fishing, hunting, snowmobiling, and driving of off-road vehicles. The demand for rangelands for recreational purposes is growing; for example, the demand for horseback riding is expected to double by the year Cordell, The fees charged for the recreational use of privately owned rangelands are growing sources of revenue for rangeland owners Box, The value placed on the recreational opportunities and open space provided by rangelands is expected to increase with increased levels of urbanization Joyce, Conditions on U.
The Europeans who brought sheep and cattle to the rangelands of the western United States overestimated the ability of the land to support. Severe flooding in in California followed by 2 years of intense drought reduced the herds by between , and 1 million head Bur-chain, California ranchers turned their attention to sheep, which they hoped would be better suited to the weather conditions of western rangelands, but this caused a debate among people who used rangelands, with cattle ranchers contending that sheep depleted all palatable grasses.
Weather problems such as drought, blizzards, and storms plagued the rest of the southwestern range in the late s, devastating cattle production. The boom-and-bust period for the beef industry coincided with an increase in the human population west of the Mississippi River.
This introduced a transition for rangelands as the land was quickly converted to cropland. In the 30 years between and , farmers brought more new land into cultivation— million hectares million acres —than had been brought into cultivation in the years since the settlement of the Jamestown colony in Virginia Athearn, The Homestead Acts, which began in , encouraged settlers to cross the Great Plains, taking with them farming methods better suited to east-em soils.
Farmers plowed over natural short grasses to plant wheat and other grains and cereals. A few years of favorable weather and good yields bolstered enthusiasm for crop production, and farmers seemed to.
They also lacked the experience and knowledge needed to use properly the arid lands of the western United States. The number of livestock on U. The combination of too many livestock, improper management practices, and drought accelerated the rate of soil erosion; depleted the amount of forage; and altered the species composition, density, and production of rangeland vegetation over extensive areas of the western United States.
This early crisis on U. He proposed two alternatives: small irrigated farms or large grazing farms with small sections that could be irrigated Powell, But his report was largely ignored by policymakers who did not understand the arid western landscape. In California, more farmers turned from cattle to crops, and by , California was second only to Minnesota in the production of wheat Paul, Planting of as much as 4, hectares 10, acres per farm became more common as the work was eased by combines hauled by steam-powered tractors.
Low property, values and minimal taxes on unimproved land encouraged farmers to plow and plant. Finally, by the early s the Great Plains had suffered through a decade of drought and people began to realize that they needed to manage and conserve the land better. This was the third period of human interaction on the rangeland, which was a time of reassessment of the land and its resources and debates over its use. Hyde spoke of the need to use better land management practices.
Three years later, the Taylor Grazing Act established the federal administration of about 32 million hectares 80 million acres of rangeland. President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal programs, such. Changing perceptions of which values of rangeland ecosystems are most important have stimulated new debates over whether these public lands should be used to produce livestock, to support wildlife, to improve water quality, or for recreational purposes and how much of each of these uses was appropriate.
The Great Plains Drought Committee was formed in , the same year that the secretary of USDA wrote to the Senate, highlighting the need to revitalize the rangelands while acknowledging changing demands for the land, including watershed and wildlife protection and the provision of recreational space. The national parks were established, although they, too, frequently inspired debate, as with the creation of the Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
The federal government wanted to buy up land for the monument, but local landowners complained that the project would unfairly deprive them of rangeland. As a compromise, the government reduced the size of the proposed project but bought more land to add to nearby Grand Teton National Park Athearn, During the post-World War II year, the tourism industry flourished in the western United States because of the favorable, dry climate and scenic attractions.
Through the persistence of conservationists, who fought to keep much of the western land for public use, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Wilderness Act of Since passage of the Wilderness Act, millions of hectares have been set aside as wilderness areas. Today, many of those lands, as well as most other federal rangelands, are used for a variety of recreational enterprises, such as hiking, camping, horseback riding, and skiing, and they are still grazed by a restricted number of livestock.
Although most observers agree that rangeland degradation was widespread on overstocked and drought-plagued rangelands at the turn of the century; the current conditions on U. Some reports have concluded that widespread historical degradation of rangelands has been halted and that rangelands, for the most part, have been recovering in the latter half of this century. For example, Box applied his professional judgment to data on trend a change in a certain characteristic of rangeland over time in range condition SCS and ecological status USFS and BLM ratings; he concluded that widespread degradation had been halted by the s and that the trend in range condition SCS has generally been upward since that time.
See Chapter 3 for discussions of range condition and ecological status. In its most recent report on the state of the public rangelands, BLM U. It also reported that the current trend is stable or improving on more than 87 percent of public rangelands. It reported an improvement on 15 percent, a decline on 14 percent, and no apparent trend on 64 percent of the lands administered by BLM.
Comparable data for lands administered by USFS were 43, 14, and 43 percent, respectively. The respective values for non-federal rangelands were 16, 14, and 70 percent. Other reports have described the continuing problems of rangeland degradation. For example, the National Resources Inventory, which is conducted once every 5 years by SCS, reported that in about 20 million hectares 49 million acres of nonfederal rangelands 12 percent were eroding at greater than the soil loss tolerance level and that over 11 million hectares 27 million acres were eroding at twice the soil loss tolerance level U.
The soil loss tolerance level is the estimated maximum annual rate of erosion that can be tolerated without damaging soil productivity. These data included rangelands eroding because of water-caused sheet and rill erosion only. Sheet erosion is erosion caused by water running off unprotected soil in thin sheets; and rill erosion is that caused by water running off unprotected soil in small channels called rills.
Other forms of water erosion, such as gullying, combined with wind erosion, undoubtedly damage millions of acres of rangelands as.
No comparable data are available for federal rangelands, but there is no reason to assume that erosion is less severe on federal lands. Forest Service, b; U. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, c , the spread of introduced weed species U. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, b , reduced water quality and wildlife habitat U.
Forest Service, a; U. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, a,b , and degradation of riparian habitat U. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, a, c.
Forest rangeland relationships
Порядок, - усмехнулся. Завладеть персональными кодами компьютеров Третьего узла было проще простого. У всех терминалов были совершенно одинаковые клавиатуры. Как-то вечером Хейл захватил свою клавиатуру домой и вставил в нее чип, регистрирующий все удары по клавишам. На следующее утро, придя пораньше, он подменил чужую клавиатуру на свою, модифицированную, а в конце дня вновь поменял их местами и просмотрел информацию, записанную чипом.
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Forest rangeland relationships
Отдайте кольцо, или мне придется отвести вас в участок и… - И что? - спросила она, подняв брови в притворном ужасе. Беккер замолчал. Он опять перегнул палку. Его план не сработал.
Если он примет на работу калеку, его компания потеряет лицо. Он выкинул его автобиографию в мусорную корзину, даже не прочитав. Нуматака в очередной раз посмотрел на часы. Американец по кличке Северная Дакота должен был бы уже позвонить.