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Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation.
Biofuel , any fuel that is derived from biomass —that is, plant or algae material or animal waste.
Anyone can learn for free on OpenLearn, but signing-up will give you access to your personal learning profile and record of achievements that you earn while you study. Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available. Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of cells and the process consists of two stages: light and dark reactions.
Biofuels have been around longer than cars have, but cheap gasoline and diesel have long kept them on the fringe. Spikes in oil prices, and now global efforts to stave off the worst effects of climate change , have lent new urgency to the search for clean, renewable fuels. Our road travel, flights, and shipping account for nearly a quarter of the world's greenhouse gas emissions, and transportation today remains heavily dependent on fossil fuels. The idea behind biofuel is to replace traditional fuels with those made from plant material or other feedstocks that are renewable. But the concept of using farmland to produce fuel instead of food comes with its own challenges, and solutions that rely on waste or other feedstocks haven't yet been able to compete on price and scale with conventional fuels. Global biofuel output needs to triple by in order to meet the International Energy Agency's targets for sustainable growth. There are various ways of making biofuels, but they generally use chemical reactions, fermentation, and heat to break down the starches, sugars, and other molecules in plants.
Green chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry applies across the life cycle of a chemical product, including its design, manufacture, use, and ultimate disposal. Green chemistry is also known as sustainable chemistry. Green chemistry reduces pollution at its source by minimizing or eliminating the hazards of chemical feedstocks, reagents, solvents, and products. This is unlike cleaning up pollution also called remediation , which involves treating waste streams end-of-the-pipe treatment or cleanup of environmental spills and other releases.