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- Remote Sensing Applications in Environmental Research
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- Remote sensing
- Introduction and History of Space Remote Sensing
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Remote Sensing Applications in Environmental Research
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book.
On command, all of them make measurements of the land surface, transmitting spectral data to a global network of strategically located ground receiving stations. Data from these earth-observing satellites are used to map, monitor, and manage the earth's natural and cultural resources.
Verne made the extraordinary prediction that a rocket would be launched from Florida by means of chemical propulsion, and that the crew would include three people and a dog.
First they would only circle the moon and return to earth, as did Apollo 8. This would be followed by a trip to the moon' s surface, the return to earth ending with a "splash down" in the Pacific Ocean and recovery by a warship. Perhaps Verne's most remarkable prediction was that Americans would make this first journey.
What he did not predict was that astronauts would be awed by the blue marble, or that their photographs would so sensitize the world that subsequent human scientific interest would shift toward space as a means for studying the earth. The United States was not only the first to land on the moon, but beyond Verne's vision, it also developed the first remote sensing satellites, whose profound importance to today's concept of a global village cannot be overstated.
Most histories of remote sensing identify Gaspard Felix Tournachon as the first person to photograph "remotely," using balloons above Paris in Bal- loons were also used for aerial reconnaissance during the American Civil War. MORAIN 29 By , aerial photographs were being taken from airplanes for a wide range of uses, including warfare, land-use inventory, and publicity. Evelyn Pruitt of the Office of Naval Research originally coined the term "remote sensing.
In the audience was Dr. William Fischer of the U. The field was so new that Dana Parker's inaugural address focused on fundamentals of the electromagnetic spec- trum.
By this time, all of the principal government, academic, and private-sector motivators for an orbiting resource satellite system were represented. Among the papers in the proceedings was one by Dr. Robert Alexander from ONR. He gave the first announcement for what evolved into Landsat-l. His abstract read: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is sponsoring a study of the geographic potential of observations and experiments which might be car- ried out from the remote vantage of earth-orbiting spacecraft.
The investigation will involve both the value of the science of geography and the expected practi- cal applications of an earth-viewing-orbiting laboratory and other possible geo- graphic satellite systems. Early emphasis will be on problems of systematizing and managing the flow of geographic information which would result from such a program. By that time, the broader field of remote sensing had attracted over participants who selected from a program of papers on topics including theoretical and applied engineering, natural and.
In , NASA's administrator inaugurated the agency's decade-long program of University Research Grants to stimulate cooperative research at the local level. In some cases it supported construction of laboratory facilities and supplied the equipment needed to train the s generation of Ph. By the mid- to late s, many of these young professionals were employed on collaborative fed- eral government research projects for proof-of-concept applications embracing the whole range of natural and cultural resources.
While these were not the only application development programs under way, they were symptomatic of a massive spontaneous adaptation to fundamentally new ways of studying the earth. Within little more than a decade of ERIM's first symposium, the core remote sensing community had increased its numbers by several orders of magnitude. This community brought about major changes in organizational structures, became the basis for a new international research agenda, and germinated the first seeds of thought on global habitability.
The proposed midget moon, or "satellite," would provide "an observation aircraft [sic] which cannot be brought down by an enemy who has not mastered similar techniques. A few months after launch, however, a presidential directive classified the Discoverer program and plunged it into deep secrecy.
In ,6 years before Sputnik 1, Arthur C. This system generated the first television-like pictures of the entire globe in a systematic and repetitive manner. Over the last two decades, AVHRR data have been used to construct vegeta- tion indices for monitoring crop failures, urban climate, locust outbreaks, range conditions, deforestation, and desertification Ehrlich et al.
The NOAA satellites have been important in the development of famine warning systems, such as those described by Hutchinson in this volume. These satellites are of much coarser resolution than the Landsat series discussed below one AVHRR image can cover as many as Landsat images , but the lack of detail is somewhat compensated by the broad coverage, lower costs, and more frequent twice daily flyovers. Roller and Colwell argue that the AVHRR images can be used very efficiently to stratify land use and topography for more detailed studies with Landsat and other higher-resolution satellites.
At an even coarser scale, the Geostationary Earth-Orbiting Satellite GOES provides the continuous hemi- spheric coverage of cloud cover and other aspects of the atmospheric circulation shown on evening weather forecasts as a visual confirmation of approaching weather, particularly extreme events such as hurricanes.
The photographs taken from manned space expeditions such as Gemini and Apollo were used in several land inventory applications. In , Skylab took more than 35, images that have become classics in many resource manage- ment and earth science texts. In recent years the Space Shuttle has taken numer- ous images of sites of human interest, many at the request of researchers con- cerned with deforestation, urbanization, pollution, and water resource management.
The United States pioneered land remote sensing from space and has been. Americans take pride in having developed the Landsat program, as well as other, more recent civilian programs. The evolution of Landsat, however, has been neither linear nor predictable. The remainder of this chapter provides an overview of its conception, genesis, and growth; its accomplishments and current status; and its uncertain future.
At this point, Landsat still dominates remote sensing applications in the United States. All of the missions conducted in the s and s, including those that acquired hand-held Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo-Soyuz photography and the early Landsats, were approved and funded as experiments to advance space science.
The forces that stimulated and motivated today's Landsat program were numerous and complex. Five of the most compel- ling were 1 the need for better information about the earth's features, 2 na- tional security, 3 commercial opportunities, 4 international cooperation, and 5 international law. Need for Better Information Society requires better information about the geographic distribution of the earth's resources, and satellites help in obtaining this information.
Earth now supports more than 5 billion people, and human populations are growing at 1. By , the world's population will exceed 6 billion. Regardless of how many people can be squeezed onto the planet, however, there are limits to the renewable and nonrenewable re- sources needed to support them.
Efficient management of renewable resources and judicious use of nonrenewable resources, as well as improved conservation and protection of fragile and endangered environments, depend on timely infor- mation about, and accurate analysis of, those resources.
In the late s, there was a convergence of thought that the best means for acquiring the needed data was earth-orbiting satellites that could provide continuous and nearly synoptic coverage of terrestrial resources. This would be the case in particular for under- standing and measuring earth system processes at regional, continental, or global scales. Human numbers and human impacts on resources thus became an early and globally compelling argument for studying the earth from space.
While there were, and still are, many security limitations imposed on the first generation of earth- observing systems, there was nevertheless a defensible argument that such a system should be developed. It was recognized that timely information about the global distribution of critical natural resources and the factors that affect global environmental conditions is integral to national security and would be gleaned in part from civilian systems. Commercial Opportunities The U.
Remote sensing technology was developed by aerospace industries under contract to federal gov- ernment agencies to satisfy both government and public needs. Commercializa- tion of this know-how is fundamental to American ideals and has been a stimulus for continued industry investment. By the early s, several industries, in- cluding communications satellites and booster launch services, had already proven the commercial value of the space environment.
The prospects for similar finan- cial gain from data on the earth's resources seemed self-evident, but a successful experimental system would be a necessary first step. The assumption that data on the earth's resources would have commercial value beyond their benefit for the public good was thus a powerful argument for developing the Landsat program. Full commercialization of both the space and ground segments may yet prove to be intractable, but there is clearly a viable and profitable role for industry in building space platforms, sensor systems, and ground processing facilities, as well as providing value-added data processing services.
The commercial value of space- based remote sensing products and services is a hypothesis that will finally be tested with several privately owned satellites scheduled for launch in International Cooperation The U. The United States is committed to using space for peaceful and. To this end, Americans want to share benefits from space technology with other nations, but they also want to protect their commercial interests.
Earth observations from space have never been the sole domain of the United States, and several nations now participate in this activity with competing spacecraft and sensor systems.
While these objectives were not publicly articulated in the early s, they were a driving political force in the Landsat planning process. International Law Societies are governed by laws, rules, and regulations to maintain organiza- tion and order not only on earth, but also in space. Societies establish laws by which they govern against chaos and anarchy.
Space law is relatively new to jurisprudence, but it is a central force because it sets the rules by which all nations, not just the space-faring ones, have a voice in how to participate in space technology. Legal aspects of civilian space-based remote sensing are compli- cated and sometimes controversial, especially regarding the issues of national sovereignty, rights of privacy, and, most recently, commercial gain.
When the United States implemented the Landsat program, it made an extraordinary effort to ensure that every nation had access to these data, even to the extent that foreign ground receiving stations were installed. William T. Archibald Park and others in the U. These objectives were to 1 construct and fly an earth-observing system by the end of , and follow this with improved and modified systems as required by the operational needs of resources programs; 2 provide unclassified remotely sensed data to facilitate the assessment of land and water resources of the United States and other nations; and 3 design specific systems on the basis of users' data requirements, distribute such data to users, and make operational use of the data in resource studies and planning.
Since development of space technology was the responsibility of NASA, the Department of the Interior's proposal was rejected. The EROS mission was to archive and distribute remotely sensed data, and to support remote sensing research and applications development within Interior. These symposia were designed especially for their Landsat- sponsored investigators to report "user identified significant results. Each of the proceedings approached pages of text and graphics, mainly detailing early application concepts and models.
The Landsat program had such a powerful impact in so many arenas that it was declared operational in late after a prolonged debate among participating government agencies U. In the decades to follow, however, Landsat-1 replacement satellites were the subject of severe political uncertainty. The program witnessed a change of guard among its staunchest supporters, and the satellites were casually labeled a "tech- nology in search of an application.
Once a critical mass of support had been attained, the indi. After a quarter- century of successful data gathering, the fate of the Landsat program remains uncertain, but the technology derived from the program continues to permeate user communities and become more complex as the applications it has spawned mature. Even as the first Landsat was being prepared for launch, conflicts in agency roles had begun to appear. NASA's charter was to engage in space research and technology development.
That charter did not include earth resource data han- dling, processing, archiving, or distribution to a large and diverse scientific com- munity, or to an even larger group of public and private users. Consequently, NASA reached agreement with several resource management agencies to transfer responsibility for the program' s ground segment, while NASA retained responsi- bility for the space segment.
A Nimbus-type platform was modified to carry the sensor package and the data relay equipment. ERTS-2 was launched on January 22, Three addi- tional Landsats were launched in , , and Landsat-3, -4, and -5, respectively.
Radars and lasers are breathtaking attributes of sci-fi movies no longer as it was just a few decades ago. These innovations have been widely used as types of sensors in remote sensing since science made a giant step ahead. Over the span of time, remote sensing technology found their applications in various spheres of human life. Farmers benefit from the types of remote sensing satellites on a daily basis. There exist two main types of remote sensing classified according to the source of signal they use to explore the object, active vs. Active remote sensing instruments operate with their own source of emission or light, while passive ones rely on the reflected one. Each active sensor in remote sensing directs its signal to the object and then checks the response — the received quantity.
Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. Subjects are encouraged to have an interdisciplinary approach and include, but are not limited by:. In addition to original research papers, comprehensive review articles are welcome. Tutorial papers and brief papers containing significant new data or techniques, or commenting on previously published papers letters to the Editor , may be published as Short Communications.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus is in contrast to on-site observation.
Introduction and History of Space Remote Sensing
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Handbook of Satellite Applications pp Cite as. This chapter introduces the subject of remote sensing both in terms of its technology and its many applications. Remote sensing via satellite has become a key service that is used in many civil applications such as agriculture, forestry, mining and prospecting for many types of resources , map making, research in geosciences, urban planning, and even land speculation. Perhaps, one of the most vital uses of remote sensing today is related to disaster warning and recovery.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Editors: Srivastava , P. Remote Sensing Applications in Environmental Research is the basis for advanced Earth Observation EO datasets used in environmental monitoring and research. This highly interdisciplinary reference work brings together diverse studies on remote sensing and GIS, from a theoretical background to its applications, represented through various case studies and the findings of new models.
PDF | On Mar 14, , Shivangi Somvanshi and others published An Introduction to Remote Sensing and its applications | Find, read and cite all the research.
AJOL and the millions of African and international researchers who rely on our free services are deeply grateful for your contribution. Your donation is guaranteed to directly contribute to Africans sharing their research output with a global readership. Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. Keywords: hyperspectral, multispectral, spectral resolution, spatial resolution, vegetation classification, water resources. Abstract Multispectral imagery has been used as the data source for water and land observational remote sensing from airborne and satellite systems since the early s.
Agriculture - Satellite and airborne images are used as mapping tools to classify crops, examine their health and viability, and monitor farming practices. Forestry - Forestry applications of remote sensing include the following:. Commercial forestry : Of importance to commercial forestry companies and to resource management agencies are inventory and mapping applications: collecting harvest information, updating of inventory information for timber supply, broad forest. Environmental monitoring : Conservation authorities are concerned with monitoring the quantity, health and diversity of the Earth's forests. Geology - Remote sensing is used as a tool to extract information about the land surface structure, composition or subsurface, but is often combined with other data sources providing complementary measurements.
Radars and lasers are breathtaking attributes of sci-fi movies no longer as it was just a few decades ago. These innovations have been widely used as types of sensors in remote sensing since science made a giant step ahead. Over the span of time, remote sensing technology found their applications in various spheres of human life. Farmers benefit from the types of remote sensing satellites on a daily basis.
Фильтры служили куда более высокой цели - защите главной базы данных АНБ. Чатрукьяну была известна история ее создания. Несмотря на все предпринятые в конце 1970-х годов усилия министерства обороны сохранить Интернет для себя, этот инструмент оказался настолько соблазнительным, что не мог не привлечь к себе внимания всего общества. Со временем им заинтересовались университеты, а вскоре после этого появились и коммерческие серверы.
Черный ход представлял собой несколько строк хитроумной программы, которые вставил в алгоритм коммандер Стратмор. Они были вмонтированы так хитро, что никто, кроме Грега Хейла, их не заметил, и практически означали, что любой код, созданный с помощью Попрыгунчика, может быть взломан секретным паролем, известным только АНБ. Стратмору едва не удалось сделать предлагаемый стандарт шифрования величайшим достижением АНБ: если бы он был принят, у агентства появился бы ключ для взлома любого шифра в Америке. Люди, знающие толк в компьютерах, пришли в неистовство. Фонд электронных границ, воспользовавшись вспыхнувшим скандалом, поносил конгресс за проявленную наивность и назвал АНБ величайшей угрозой свободному миру со времен Гитлера.
Потому что это проституция, а она в Испании строжайше запрещена. Доброй ночи, сэр. - Но… Послышался щелчок положенной на рычаг трубки.
Четверо. Всего трое. Халохот стиснул револьвер в руке, не вынимая из кармана. Он будет стрелять с бедра, направляя дуло вверх, в спину Беккера.
Сьюзан… Она знала, что его уже нет в живых, но его голос по-прежнему преследовал. Она снова и снова слышала свое имя. Сьюзан… Сьюзан… И в этот момент она все поняла.
Получалось, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ трудится над шифром больше пятнадцати часов. Она хорошо знала, что процессор перебирает тридцать миллионов паролей в секунду - сто миллиардов в час. Если ТРАНСТЕКСТ до сих пор не дал ответа, значит, пароль насчитывает не менее десяти миллиардов знаков. Полнейшее безумие. - Это невозможно! - воскликнула она .
Вы хотите отправить его домой. - Нет. Пусть остается. - Стратмор кивнул в сторону лаборатории систем безопасности. - Чатрукьян уже, надеюсь, ушел.
Он появился тремя десятилетиями ранее благодаря усилиям специалистов из министерства обороны и представлял собой громадную сеть компьютеров, призванных обеспечить безопасность правительственной связи на случай ядерной войны. Профессионалы Интернета стали глазами и ушами АНБ. Люди, занимавшиеся нелегальной деятельностью с использованием электронной почты, быстро убедились в том, что их секреты больше не являются их частным достоянием. ФБР, Налоговое управление, Агентство по борьбе с наркотиками и другие правоохранительные агентства США - с помощью опытных штатных хакеров - сумели арестовать и предать суду гораздо больше преступников.
Двадцативосьмилетняя Сьюзан оказалась среди них младшей и к тому же единственной женщиной. Визит вылился в сплошной пиар и бесчисленные интеллектуальные тесты при минимуме информации по существу дела. Через неделю Сьюзан и еще шестерых пригласили. Сьюзан заколебалась, но все же поехала.
Беккер понял, что, если его преследователь находится внутри, он в западне. В Севильском соборе единственный вход одновременно является выходом. Такая архитектура стала популярной в те времена, когда церкви одновременно служили и крепостями, защищавшими от вторжения мавров, поскольку одну дверь легче забаррикадировать.