File Name: nonverbal communication studies and applications .zip
Communication in the Real World: An Introduction to Communication Studies overviews the time-tested conceptual foundations of the field, while incorporating the latest research and cutting-edge applications of these basics.
- Nonverbal Communication
- 4.2 Types of Nonverbal Communication
- Applications of Nonverbal Communication (Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology Series)
Within that area, a distinguished group of authorities present chapters summarizing recent theoretical views and empirical findings, including the results of their own research and applied activities.
An introductory chapter frames the material, pointing out common themes and varied areas of practical applications. Thus each volume brings together trenchant new social psychological ideas, research results, and fruitful applications bearing on an area of current social interest. The volumes will be of value not only to practitioners and researchers, but also to students and lay people interested in this vital and expanding area of psychology. Crano and Michael Burgoon Donaldson and Michael Scriven Omoto and Stuart Oskamp Riggio and Robert S.
Feldman What are some of the general lessons found in this volume? Given the great range and variety of nonverbal cues, only very few are "translatable" into their verbal counterparts. These few would include certain "universal" basic expressions of emotions i. Yet, even interpretation of these small groups of nonverbal cues may vary from culture to culture especially true for gestures; e. One of the reasons that nonverbal communication is difficult to translate consistently is that the meaning of specific nonverbal cues can vary depending on the context.
Similarly, on a molar level, Matsumoto and Yoo's chapter chap. Clearly there are significant individual differences in people's abilities to convey encode , interpret decode , and regulate their nonverbal behavior Riggio, Several chapters in this book focus on these individual differences, and they have important implications for understanding clinical populations Philippot,et al.
Another important lesson is the critical role of interpersonal expectations. This has two aspects. First, our expectations concerning characteristics and qualities of others can be subtly communicated via nonverbal cues and can impact their behavior.
Such expectancy effects, also known as the "Rosenthal effect," in honor of nonverbal scholar, Robert Rosenthal, have been most clearly applied to understanding how teachers can influence students' performance but has applications to many other settings, as well , are outlined in Chapter 7. Several of the chapters bring home the point that nonverbal communication patterns have the potential to be altered through training and therefore made more adaptive.
For example, Philippot et al. The first part looks at health applications of nonverbal communication and includes Martin and Friedman's overview of applications of nonverbal communication to medical health care settings. The second chapter looks at a more specific area in clinical mental health Philippot, et al. The section also features Goethal's recent work on how nonverbal communication plays a role in the perceived effectiveness of political leaders. Part III of the book examines the role of nonverbal communication in business and education.
In Chapter 6, Riggio provides an overview of the ways in which nonverbal communication impacts on the world of business and industry. Woodzicka and LaFrance chap. Turning to the realm of education, Harris and Rosenthal chap. The final part of the book looks at social and cultural issues involving nonverbal behavior. Noller,Feeney,and Roberts chap. In Chapter 10, O'Sullivan examines the detection of deception, considering why some individuals are so much better than others at identifying others' lies.
Finally, the book ends with Matsumoto and Yoo's chapter chap. Further, the health recommendations that are made or prescribed may seem confusing, daunting, or unreasonable. Patients and providers share the common goal of improving patient health, but often have different communicative styles, bodies of knowledge, and philosophical perspectives. In many cases, there are no simple ways to decide if one is healthy or ill, as people vary markedly in their pain perceptions, their genetics, their motivations, and their behavioral reactions to physiological states.
Rather, health and illness are often socially negotiated states. Further, there are very few areas of health care that do not involve extensive face-to-face interactions. As models for understanding health and illness have moved steadily away from traditional mechanical, biomedical approaches and toward the biopsychosocial model Engel, , increasing emphasis has been placed on treating the person within this complex system, rather than trying to isolate one particular part of the whole.
This chapter focuses on the nonverbal elements of communication within a health care setting. Because nonverbal behaviors are often more subtle and abstruse than verbal behaviors, they tend to be poorly understood. And, the challenges associated with measuring and interpreting nonverbal cues make research in this area difficult.
Despite the challenges, a body of literature on nonverbal communications in health care settings has accumulated. The present chapter will briefly review this literature beginning with nonverbal cues that are transmitted from patients to providers and the ways in which health care providers interpret and understand these communications, followed by an overview of nonverbal transmissions of information from health care providers to patients and the ways in which these are utilized.
We will then focus more specifically on identifying elements of good nonverbal communication, and ways in which these can be increased to improve both the patient-provider encounter and patient health outcomes.
Finally, measurement limitations, innovations, and current trends in this important sub-field of Health Psychology will be addressed. Hippocrates urged the practitioner to first focus on the patient's face, and the face-to-face clinical intake or diagnostic interview has become the cornerstone of modern diagnosis Friedman, An experienced clinician gains many insights from the gestalt configural view of a patient.
Pallor, weakness, tenderness, restricted movement, emotion, breathing changes, voice tones, perspiration levels, and so on may paint an informative picture. Further, many particular nonverbal diagnostic techniques also have been uncovered or documented. Nonverbal cues can often be a good indicator of psychopathological comorbidity, an important issue as depression is increasingly recognized as relevant to many illnesses.
Nonverbal cues are essential to diagnosing syndromes such as the Type A Behavior Pattern e. Facial expressions can yield important information about an individual's true physical or emotional state but are also most subject to distortion. The neural pathways for volitional facial expression are at the cortical level, whereas subcortical areas govern spontaneous expressions Rinn, Thus, a patient might consciously exhibit a pleasant expression while reassuring the doctor that "the pain is better An astute observer will note this discrepancy and probe for further details e.
Although the face is thus a common place to look for nonverbal information, people are also likely to take this into account when consciously trying to hide something or convey a different emotion than is truly felt. We learn to closely monitor and control our facial expressions. Therefore, other nonverbal channels, such as speech patterns, gestures, or posture should not be ignored.
In addition to leaking information about their current states through nonverbal channels, patients may also exhibit behaviors that carry a particular message about their desires or needs within the medical encounter itself. Patients who behave submissively usingpassive voice tone, making little eye contact, holding the body with a closed posture and who talk less are lowering their own likelihood for involvement in the medical care process Kaplan, et al.
Physicians who are sensitive to the nonverbal cues of their patients may obtain a more accurate view of the patients' needs physical, social, and emotional. This study suggested that doctors who are better able to read the nonverbal cues of their patients might be better equipped to meet their patients' needs.
Most patients report that they want to be involved in their own care and health-decision making, and although the level of desired involvement does vary, many patients say that they would like to receive more information and be more involved than they are e.
The information that patients glean from nonverbal channels supplements the information that is given to them verbally, and is important because patients often are illequipped to judge the technical quality of care received or to understand the complexity of their technical diagnosis. So, they may rely instead on the interpersonal quality of care.
In some cases, such as in cases of lifethreatening diseases, patients may have reason to disbelieve what their health care providers say to them, or may think that they are receiving less than the full truth regarding their health, and in these cases nonverbal expressions also become highly salient.
What exactly is bedside manner, and is it reasonable to assume that it can be learned? Bedside manner refers broadly and informally to the interpersonal behaviors shown by a physician or other health care provider, especially those that foster trust and a sense of well-being in patients. Hippocrates translation noted that through "contentment with the goodness of the physician" a patient in perilous condition might nevertheless recover. Empirical evidence suggests that at least some of these processes occur unconsciously.
One recent study demonstrated that facial mimicry, measured by electromyographic activity as participants viewed pictures of happy and angry faces, corresponded more closely to self-reported emotional experience in individuals with high empathy Sonnby-Borgstrom, These studies show that improving the physician-patient partnership is not simply a matter of teaching doctors to speak more clearly and avoid jargon.
A wide range of competencies, including nonverbal competency, can be learned with practice, and these skills are not habits that accrue naturally over time, without intervention e. Data also point to the importance of learning the appropriate behaviors and style, however, because what seems intuitively sensible may not be valid. This same study showed that some other typically suggested physician behaviors, such as using warm and friendly tones and speaking to the patient as an adult, were related in the expected ways to patients' perceptions of being invited to participate in their own care.
But, although this maybe true on average, it is also clear that the effectiveness of this rapport-building tool can vary across situations. These systems, despite their emphasis on providing a standard, reliable, and valid documentation of the encounter are often also able to provide good information regarding the affective emotional and motivational elements of interactions.
Despite mounting evidence regarding the broad utility of some of the most popular medical interaction coding systems, researchers who are interested in nonverbal aspects of communication often rely more on global assessments of the encounter, as assessed by raters, because these potentially allow for even greater integration of subtle nuances that are difficult to otherwise operationally define.
Many of the global ratings are judged from audio-recorded encounters, and while certain elements of nonverbal communication can be assessed from audiotape e. These individuals not only walk smoothly, they also talk smoothly, showing fewer speech disturbances and more modulated tones. Their voices are also less likely to change in tone under stress. And, there are exceptions to these rules. A single nonverbal cue cannot tell us much by itself. Still, substantial valid information about a person's emotional style can be obtained from just a short episode of social interaction, as has been powerfully demonstrated by the work on "thin slices" of expressive behavior e.
These studies have shown that even very short 6 to 30 second episodes of expressive behavior are strongly related to important outcomes and are highly accurate. This is why a careful intake interview can be so valuable to the health care professional who knows what to look for, and why that first encounter is so important to the subsequent health of the relationship. Nonverbal emotional styles are not easily or directly changed.
4.2 Types of Nonverbal Communication
Oral communication only relies on one channel, because spoken language is transmitted through sound and picked up by our ears. Nonverbal communication, on the other hand, can be taken in by all five of our senses. Since most of our communication relies on visual and auditory channels, those will be the focus of this chapter. But we can also receive messages and generate meaning through touch, taste, and smell. Touch is an especially powerful form of nonverbal communication that we will discuss in this chapter, but we will not get into taste and smell, which have not received as much scholarly attention in relation to nonverbal communication as the other senses. To further define nonverbal communication, we need to distinguish between vocal and verbal aspects of communication. Verbal and nonverbal communication include both vocal and nonvocal elements, and Table 4.
Books» » Nonverbal Communication: Stu. Nonverbal Communication: Studies and Applications pdf download. (by Mark Hickson III). Download PDF.
Applications of Nonverbal Communication (Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology Series)
Nonverbal communication NVC is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact , facial expressions , gestures , posture , and the distance between two individuals. The study of nonverbal communication started in with the publication of The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals by Charles Darwin. Darwin began to study nonverbal communication as he noticed the interactions between animals such as lions, tigers, dogs etc.
Relate to common experiences between the source and destination. Others are by practitioners, with sometimes little or no nod to the science, and in some cases discussing nonverbal behaviors NVBs that have not been validated. Nonverbal communication is an important but under-studied element of organizational life. Communication Models and Theories Overcoming barriers to effective communication: Design and deliver message so that it gets the attention of intended audience. Providing a thoughtful balance of theory and practice, Nonverbal Communication: Studies and Applications, Sixth Edition, offers students an engaging, sophisticated, and up-to-date introduction to the field.
nonverbal communication: science and applications pdf
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