Pasture And Range Management Pdf

pasture and range management pdf

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Rangelands are grasslands , shrublands , woodlands , wetlands , and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals. Types of rangelands include tallgrass and shortgrass prairies , desert grasslands and shrublands, woodlands, savannas , chaparrals , steppes , and tundras.

Range Management

Rangelands are grasslands , shrublands , woodlands , wetlands , and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals. Types of rangelands include tallgrass and shortgrass prairies , desert grasslands and shrublands, woodlands, savannas , chaparrals , steppes , and tundras.

Rangelands are distinguished from pasture lands because they grow primarily native vegetation , rather than plants established by humans.

Rangelands are also managed principally with practices such as managed livestock grazing and prescribed fire rather than more intensive agricultural practices of seeding, irrigation , and the use of fertilizers. Grazing is an important use of rangelands but the term rangeland is not synonymous with grazingland. Livestock grazing can be used to manage rangelands by harvesting forage to produce livestock, changing plant composition, or reducing fuel loads.

Fire is also an important regulator of range vegetation, whether set by humans or resulting from lightning. Fires tend to reduce the abundance of woody plants and promote herbaceous plants including grasses, forbs, and grass-like plants. The suppression or reduction of periodic wildfires from desert shrublands, savannas, or woodlands frequently invites the dominance of trees and shrubs to the near exclusion of grasses and forbs.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines rangeland as "lands on which the native vegetation climax or natural potential plant community is predominantly grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs suitable for grazing or browsing use. Prairies are considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.

Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina , and the steppes of Eurasia. Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses Poaceae and other herbaceous non-woody plants forbs.

However, sedge Cyperaceae and rush Juncaceae families can also be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica. In temperate latitudes, such as northwest Europe and the Great Plains and California in North America , native grasslands are dominated by perennial bunch grass species, whereas in warmer climates annual species form a greater component of the vegetation.

Steppe , in physical geography , refers to a biome region characterized by grassland plain without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. The prairie especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such.

It may be semi- desert , or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude. The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest , but not dry enough to be a desert. These plains contain unique wildlife because of the different terrains around it. Some of this wildlife includes the rhea , the badger , and the prairie chicken.

Shrubland is a plant community characterized by vegetation dominated by shrubs , often also including grasses , herbs , and geophytes. Shrubland may either occur naturally or be the result of human activity. A stable state may be maintained by regular natural disturbance such as fire or browsing. Shrubland may be unsuitable for human habitation because of the danger of fire. The term "shrubland" was first coined in Woodland is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.

Woodlands may support an understory of shrubs and herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of primary or secondary succession. Higher densities and areas of trees, with largely closed canopy, provide extensive and nearly continuous shade are referred to as forest. Savanna is a grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently small or widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of C4 grasses. In the Thornthwaite climate classification system, deserts would be classified as arid megathermal climates. Tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

Scattered trees grow in some tundra. The ecotone or ecological boundary region between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline. Rangeland is a prominent feature of rural Canada. A provincial jurisdiction, administration and policy regarding range use varies across the country. As in many other Commonwealth countries, public tenures on crown land for the purpose of range activities are common in geographically compatible areas.

Reconciling the economic needs of ranchers and the need for environmental conservation is one of the primary themes in modern range discourse. In western Canada, both grassland and forested range are significant. In British Columbia, 70 percent of grassland range is privately owned and 60 percent of the total annual livestock forage requirement is provided by grazing on Crown rangeland 34 million hectares , 80 percent of which is forested range.

Certain rangelands are preserved as provincially-protected areas similar to parks, others are managed as community resources. For example, in Alberta since there has been legislation allowing the creation of "Heritage Rangelands" within the parks system. Ranchers may lease portions of this public rangeland and pay a fee based on the number and type of livestock and the period for which they are on the land. Historically much of the land in the western United States was used for grazing and much of some states still is.

In many of those states, such as Arizona, an open-range law applies which requires a land owner to fence cattle out rather than in; thus cattle are theoretically allowed to roam free. In modern times open-range laws can conflict with urban development as occasional stray cows, bulls, or even herds wander into subdivisions or onto highways.

Rangelands are found in 53 of Australia's 85 bioregions , and support a diverse group of relatively undisturbed ecosystems such as tropical savannas , woodlands, shrublands, grasslands and deserts. The rangelands are home to many of Australia's Indigenous peoples and are of great cultural significance to them. Rangelands in South America are located in regions with climate ranging from arid to sub-humid.

South American rangelands include; grasslands, shrublands, savannas, and hot and cold deserts. Rangelands in South America exclude hyperarid deserts. This movement often brings along an incursion of different diseases with the common one being the rinderpest virus in the Kenyan wildlife population from the Somali ecosystem. In the past, rangelands in western China supported a pastoral economy and large wildlife populations. Now the rangelands have shrunk due to population growth, economic, government, and social factors.

Rangelands produce a wide variety of goods and services desired by society, including livestock forage Grazing , wildlife habitat, water , mineral resources , wood products , wildland recreation , open space and natural beauty. The geographic extent and many important resources of rangelands make their proper use and management vitally important to people everywhere.

Buffalo grazing on rangeland in Crook County, Wyoming. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 12 September Natural England. Walker; P. A Stott In Patricia A. Werner ed. Oxford : Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved Megathermal Climate. Retrieved on Archived from the original on The World's Biomes.

Wild World. National Geographic. Archived from the original PDF on Forested rangeland grazing. Forest grazing. Alberta Wilderness Association. Retrieved 21 July Alberta Tourism Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on 19 August Retrieved 22 July Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Transfer of grazing pastures.

Retrieved October 13, Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment. Retrieved 16 August Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Attribution 4. Natural resources. Arable peak farmland Degradation Landscape cityscape seascape soundscape viewshed Law property Management habitat conservation Minerals mining law sand peak rights Soil conservation fertility health resilience Use planning reserve.

Aquifer storage and recovery Drinking Fresh Groundwater pollution recharge remediation Hydrosphere Ice bergs glacial polar Irrigation huerta Rain harvesting Stormwater Surface water Wastewater reclaimed Watershed. Commons enclosure global land tragedy of Economics ecological land Ecosystem services Exploitation overexploitation Earth Overshoot Day Management adaptive Natural capital accounting Natural heritage Nature reserve Systems ecology Urban ecology Wilderness.

Categories : Grasslands Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands. Hidden categories: Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from October CS1 maint: archived copy as title Articles with dead external links from January Articles with permanently dead external links Articles needing additional references from March All articles needing additional references.

Range Condition

Range condition describes an evaluation of the current status of rangeland vegetation. Condition assessments provide the framework to register information obtained by range inventories on the basic status of existing vegetation, and to gauge changes or range trend through monitoring. In addition, range condition is used as a guide to ensure sustainable land use, to determine carrying capacity and adjust stocking rates , to identify potential responses to range improvement programs such as brush control or reseeding, and to evaluate the best locations of fences and water facilities to improve utilization within a pasture. In earlier days of rangeland management, range condition was a general term describing the status of resources at a site with particular reference to livestock grazing. Today, range condition usually carries a specific connotation, reflecting current status of the vegetation and soils occupying a site in comparison to the site potential expected if the climax vegetation was present.

Oklahoma is blessed with an abundance of excellent forage resources. Many Oklahoma producers enjoy the benefits of operating livestock production systems on both rangeland and introduced-forage pastures. However, some producers may not be aware of the need for different management strategies for the two ecosystems. Improper management generally results in decreased profitability of the livestock operation and reduces the sustainability of the production system. The net return per acre from rangeland ecosystems can be rewarding due to the lower input costs associated with extensive management practices.

Tropical Forestry Handbook pp Cite as. It is impossible to give precise figures on the areas covered by rangelands. Some indications on land use types can be found in the Production Yearbook FAO , and percentages calculated on the basis of those data are shown in Table 1. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide.

Livestock Husbandry on Range and Pasture. A discussion of the management of range and pas- ture livestock. In Preparation. Native American Forage Plants.

Pasture and Range Management Lecture Notes

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Albertson, F. Ecology of mixed prairie in West Central Kansas. Ecological Monographs

Based mostly on A. Kuchler Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous Unites States. American Geographical Soc. Pastures can support a wide range of plant species, offering varying degrees of nutrition for the grazers, stability for the pasture in terms of soil health, and habitat for wildlife.

The first, and till date, the only of its kind in the Nigerian University system, the Department has grown in leaps and bounds since then. The total student enrolment now stands at from to levels and 7 academic staff including 2 Professors, 1 Reader, 1 Senior Lecturer and other cadres. The Department started post-graduate training in and has graduated 2 Postgraduate Diploma, 4 M.

Agricultural Pasture, Rangeland and Grazing

Но потом поняла, куда смотрел коммандер: на человеческую фигуру шестью этажами ниже, которая то и дело возникала в разрывах пара.

Стратмор опустился на колени и повернул тяжелый винтовой замок. Теперь крышку не поднять изнутри. Подсобка компьютера надежно закрыта.

Через пять секунд она вновь закроется, совершив вокруг своей оси поворот на триста шестьдесят градусов. Сьюзан собралась с мыслями и шагнула в дверной проем. Компьютер зафиксировал ее прибытие. Хотя Сьюзан практически не покидала шифровалку в последние три года, она не переставала восхищаться этим сооружением. Главное помещение представляло собой громадную округлую камеру высотой в пять этажей.

 Годы тренировки. Ложь была единственным способом избавить тебя от неприятностей. Сьюзан кивнула.

Пуля отскочила от голой стены и чуть не попала в него. Он стремительно развернулся и едва сдержал крик. Никого.

 - У меня к вам предложение. - Ein Vorschlag? - У немца перехватило дыхание.  - Предложение. - Да.

 Видишь? - спросил Бринкерхофф, наклоняясь над ней и показывая цифру.  - Это СЦР. Миллиард долларов. Мидж хмыкнула.

В верхней губе у него торчала серебряная запонка, на нем была черная кожаная куртка, надетая на голое тело. - Какого черта тебе надо? - прорычал он хриплым голосом - с явным нью-йоркским акцентом. Сдерживая подступившую к горлу тошноту, Беккер успел заметить, что все пассажиры повернулись и смотрят на. Все как один были панки. И, наверное, у половины из них - красно-бело-синие волосы.

В случае перегрева он выключится без чьей-либо помощи. - Вы сумасшедший, - с презрением в голосе ответил Хейл.  - Мне наплевать, даже если ваш ТРАНСТЕКСТ взлетит на воздух.

Почему-то ему казалось, что этот филологический ребус Сьюзан не обрадует. - Хочу тебя обрадовать. Когда я летел домой, - сказал он, желая переменить тему, - я позвонил президенту университета. Сьюзан радостно встрепенулась.

Больше всего похоже на требование выкупа. Слова Сьюзан прозвучали слабым, едва уловимым шепотом: - Это… Энсей Танкадо. Джабба повернулся и изумленно посмотрел на. - Танкадо. Сьюзан едва заметно кивнула: - Он требовал, чтобы мы сделали признание… о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ… это стоило ему… - Признание? - растерянно прервал ее Бринкерхофф.

Остается только заполнить. Беккер снова вздохнул, решительно подошел к двери и громко постучал. Пора переходить к решительным действиям. Немец рывком открыл дверь и собрался было закричать, но Беккер его опередил.


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