File Name: tools and techniques of data collection in research .zip
While data analysis in qualitative research can include statistical procedures, many times analysis becomes an ongoing iterative process where data is continuously collected and analyzed almost simultaneously. Indeed, researchers generally analyze for patterns in observations through the entire data collection phase Savenye, Robinson, The form of the analysis is determined by the specific qualitative approach taken field study, ethnography content analysis, oral history, biography, unobtrusive research and the form of the data field notes, documents, audiotape, videotape.
- Data Collection: Definition, Methods, Example and Design
- Data collection
- Data collection techniques a guide for researchers in humanities and education
- Data Collection
Descriptions of key issues in survey research and questionnaire design are highlighted in the following sections. Modes of data collection approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages. Descriptions of commonly used sampling designs are provided and the primary sources of survey error are identified.
Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Data collection is defined as the procedure of collecting, measuring and analyzing accurate insights for research using standard validated techniques. A researcher can evaluate their hypothesis on the basis of collected data.
Data Collection: Definition, Methods, Example and Design
This paper is intended to discuss the Data collection techniques especially in Education and Humanities research. Research according to Best is the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to development of principles or theories, resulting in prediction and possible ultimate control of events.
Data in research means those facts that are collected for further investigation. Aina defines data as raw and un-processed facts. Therefore when data has been converted or processed it becomes information. Data as defined by encyclopedia Britannica as factual information as measurements or statistics used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation. Research, therefore, has been defined as the formal, systematic application of the scientific method to the study of problems Gay et al.
While educational research has been defined as the formal, systematic application of the scientific method to the study of educational problems. The goal of educational research is essentially the same as the goal of all science: to describe, explain, predict or control phenomena, in this case educational phenomena Olatoye, , Gay et al. Data collection techniques therefore allow the researcher to systematically collect information about their object of study people, objects, phenomena and about the setting they occur.
In the collection of data, the researcher must have to be systematic because if he collects data haphazardly, it will be very difficult for him to answer questions in a conclusive way. Data collection is an integral part of research process in education and humanities. The general order of scientific method which the educational research follows attests to this claim.
There are so many types of research methods, such as Survey, experimental, historical among others. In this paper it is not the intention of the author to discuss on any type of research methodologies, but rather, this paper is intended to discuss on data collection techniques which is an aspect in one of the methodologies.
Survey research involves collecting data to test hypotheses or to answer questions about people's opinions on some topic or issue. A survey is an instrument to collect data that describes one or more characteristics of a specific population Gay et al. A variety of instruments are used to gather data in the process of undertaking research. A researcher may want to develop a new instrument or select a readymade one from items bank. There are different ways of selecting, picking or collecting written information and they are called data collection technique.
Basically there are various data collection techniques that one can use such as: observation, questionnaire, interviews, tests and using available information Gay et al. Observation methodObservation means to watch attentively in a scientific or systematic manner.
In an observational study, the current status of a phenomenon is determined not only by asking but by observing. Observation is sometimes treated as a research method, sometimes as data collection techniques to be utilized with a research method Powel and Connaway, As a data collection technique, it is used in both basic and applied research and in qualitative and quantitative studies. Many researchers prefer systematic, direct observation of behavior as the most accurate and desirable method of recording the behavior of people.
When observation is made in research, it usually consists of detailed notation of behaviors, events, and the context surrounding the events and behaviors. In most cases, observation is usually employed to collect data regarding the number of occurrences in a specific period of time, or the duration, of very specific behaviors or events.
Best and Khan proposes five dimensions along which observations vary. First, the observer's role may vary from full participant to complete outsider. Second, the observer may conduct the observations covertly e. Third, those being observed may be given full explanation, partial explanations, no explanations, or given a false explanation. The fourth dimension is duration. The observations may take place over course of an entire year or even longer or could be as brief as an hour.
The final dimension is the breadth of focus. The observation may vary from quite brad to quite narrow. Observations can be of the setting or physical environment, social interactions, physical activities, nonverbal communications, planned and unplanned activities and interactions.
The observer should also take into consideration for non-occurrences, things that should have happen but did not. Questionnaire methodThis is the list of questions related to the objectives of Sani 41 the study and hypotheses, which the respondent is required to answer. In other words a written questionnaire also referred to as self-administered questionnaire is a data collection tool in which written questions are presented that are to be answered by the respondents in a written form.
Preparing a questionnaire is a significant step in research that may be done properly by watching the numerous pit falls and following an orderly procedure. Proper construction of the questionnaire is essential to its success. In general, the researcher must consider his or her information needs and the characteristics of the participants. Before a researcher start distributing his questionnaire, there is the need for him to take the following steps as outline by Olatoye, , Best and Khan , Gay et al.
That, you should determine the sequence in which, the various subject should appear in the questionnaire and that is to say you should determine which topic might be most suitable for the lead in questions and the succeeding question. That, the researcher Should provide a space for the answer to each question in multiple choice questions.
You should also ensure that the data sought are those needed to arrive at the solution to the problem. Preparing questionnaire is a significant step in research that may be done properly by watching numerous pits falls and following an orderly procedure. If the following steps are taken in the order given, they shall promote the construction of a successful questionnaire. As a researcher you should place yourself in the position of the respondent to determine the kind of responses that are likely to generate when the questionnaire is administered.
Some questions may need to be supplemented with illustration or explanation. This can be achieved by protesting the questionnaire in actual interview, which will produce the quantity and quality needed. They are probably the most straightforward type of questionnaire item.
Mostly this type of questionnaire is used for attitudinal survey, they tend to be more subjective than factual questions and are more difficult to validate externally Powell and Conway, ;p.
There are two major types of questionnaire, open ended questionnaire and close ended questionnaire. Researchers from both humanities and education writing projects, theses and proposals, can as well use either of the two, depending upon the type of survey they are conducting. There must have a very good arrangement of the draft questionnaire before it is finally printed and distributed.
Arrangement is a process with which you establish the Validity and reliability of the questions. It is a measure that is obtained from a per-tested questionnaire. Information state in this section includes, sex, age, educational background, economic status, marital status, etc. There are three main methods of administering the survey questionnaire.
Powell and Connaway opined that, questionnaire can be self administered, which means that the respondents are asked to complete the questionnaire themselves; administered face-face to respondents by researcher; or questionnaire administered to respondents via telephone by interviewers. The self-administered questionnaire can be mailed or electronically transmitted via e-mail or the web site. Interview method as a research toolInterview is a specific form of emphasizing, participating and observing trends that takes place between two people.
The interviewer participate by determining the setting or social context in which the interview takes place and asking questions or presenting other stimuli in order to elicit information from the person being interviewed Morgan and Harmon, Therefore one of the first steps for conducting an interview must be the development of the list of questions to be asked, or the interview schedule.
The techniques for constructing questionnaires and structured interview schedules are quite similar. In conducting an interview, the interviewer should attempt to create a friendly, nonthreatening atmosphere. Much as one does with a covering letter, the interviewer should give a brief, casual introduction to the study; stress the importance of the person's participation; and assure anonymity, or at least confidentiality, when possible.
The purposes of an interview are many, such that, it may be used as the main instrument of the research. It may be used to test hypotheses or suggest new ones. It may also be for gathering facts at the exploratory stage of research. Interview can also be used to identify variables and relationship. It is generally believe that the interview method is better at revealing information that is complex or emotionally laden.
The use of visual aids can sometimes facilitate presenting and recording complicated information. The data gathered from internet interviews can easily be uploaded to data analysis software packages. Focus group interviewThe focus group interview is a group design to "explore in depth the feelings and beliefs people hold and to learn how these feelings shape overt behavior. They are called focus groups because Sani 43 the discussion starts out broadly and gradually narrow down to the focus of the research.
Focus groups are useful for orienting oneself to a new field; developing ideas and concepts or even generating hypotheses based on informant's insight; evaluating different research sites or study populations; developing and refining research instruments, such as interview schedules and questionnaires, and getting participant interpretations of result from earlier studies. The participants of focus interview could be asked to discuss the sources they use to find information, what type of information they find most useful, how they evaluate the information they retrieve, and what resources or tolls would facilitate information retrieval for their specific purposes.
Finally, there are some features of research instrument. There are several criteria for evaluating the appropriateness of research instruments, these include: validity, reliability and usability validity. Therefore it is left for a potential researcher to look for these criteria and adapt what he feels is convenient to him.
Various collections techniques were identified which includes observation, questionnaires and interviews. It is even much more difficult to define the research problem, develop and implement a sampling plan etc. If you succeeded in doing that very well, the analysis of the data is usually a fairly straight forward affair. Finally, in selecting specific techniques, the researcher should weigh the various pros and cons of each method.
For example, if one were particularly anxious to achieve a high response rate, he or she might choose the interview over questionnaire.
If cost were the major concern, then the questionnaire would be the obvious choice, other Consideration being roughly equal.
Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established system, which then enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes. Data collection is a research component in all study fields, including physical and social sciences , humanities ,  and business. While methods vary by discipline, the emphasis on ensuring accurate and honest collection remains the same. The goal for all data collection is to capture quality evidence that allows analysis to lead to the formulation of convincing and credible answers to the questions that have been posed. Data collection and validation consists of four steps when it involves taking a census and seven steps when it involves sampling .
Data collection tools refer to the devices/instruments used to collect data, such as a paper questionnaire or computer-assisted interviewing.
Data collection techniques a guide for researchers in humanities and education
Quality Glossary Definition: Data collection and analysis tools. Data collection and analysis tools are defined as a series of charts, maps, and diagrams designed to collect, interpret, and present data for a wide range of applications and industries. Various programs and methodologies have been developed for use in nearly any industry, ranging from manufacturing and quality assurance to research groups and data collection companies.
This section describes the tools and techniques that are used in quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative methods involve the collection and analysis of objective data, often in numerical form. The research design is determined prior to the start of data collection and is not flexible. The research process, interventions and data collection tools e. Table 8 provides an overview of quantitative data collection strategies.
Case Studies A case study is usually an in-depth description of a process, experience, or structure at a single institution. Most often, the researcher will analyze quantitative data first and then use qualitative strategies to look deeper into the meaning of the trends identified in the numerical data. They can be simple lists of criteria that can be marked as present or absent, or can provide space for observer comments. These tools can provide consistency over time or between observers.
The underlying need for Data collection is to capture quality evidence that seeks to answer all the questions that have been posed. Through data collection business or management can deduce quality information that is a prerequisite for making informed decisions. To improve the quality of information, it is expedient that data is collected so that you can draw inferences and make informed decisions on what is considered factual. At the end of this article, you would understand why picking the best data collection method is necessary for achieving your set objective. Data collection is a methodical process of gathering and analyzing specific information to proffer solutions to relevant questions and evaluate the results.
The data-gathering devices that have proven useful in educational research include tools e.g. psychological tests and inventories, questionnaires, opinionnaires.
Вы заплатили ему десять тысяч долларов? - Она повысила голос. - Это грязный трюк. - Трюк? - Теперь уже Стратмор не мог скрыть свое раздражение. - Это вовсе не трюк. Да я вообще слова ему не сказал о деньгах.
Двухцветный равнодушно кивнул. - Где оно? - не отставал Беккер.