An Introduction To Agent Ba Ed Modeling Modeling Naturalocial And Pdf

an introduction to agent ba ed modeling modeling naturalocial and pdf

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English Pages XI, [] Year

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Key Thinkers on Space and Place

Refworks Account Login. Open Collections. UBC Theses and Dissertations. Featured Collection. Examining Committee:Dr. Ann Marie Craig, Department of PsychiatryAdditional ExamineriiAbstractThe power of social interaction and touch is undisputed across the animal kingdom.

To evalu-ate neuro-correlates of social behaviour, recent studies have focused both on system level humanstudies to mechanistic studies within animal models. In animals, mechanistic studies have largelyfocused on social interactions between rodents and this work indicates a fundamental role of therodent vibrissal system in transmitting social signals between animals. While considerable workhas been done in both human and animal models, correlations between subjects over high sam-pling rates and relatively large expanses of the cortex have not been done.

Here, we employ mousemesoscale GCaMP imaging to establish how calcium activity is correlated when two mice engagein social touch-like behaviour. The two mice begin at a distance where social touch is not possible,then they are transiently brought close to each other in order to allow them to interact. After-wards, the mice are moved back to their initial separated state. When the mice are in the togetherstate we observe that the mice engage in bouts of mutual whisking resulting in simultaneous bar-rel cortex activity.

Additionally, we find that brain-wide calcium signals at a frequency band of0. We also developed a cost effectiveradio-frequency based system for mouse identification. We describe a simple protocol to tag andidentify mice using glass-encapsulated tags, which were injected sub-cutaneously after brief anes-thesia. Python software provides a flexible, cross-platform solution for interfacing with the tagreader, which is capable of reading the tags at a distance of The system facilitatesautomated behavioural experiments that require animal identification [Murphy et al.

The radio frequency identification RFID system could beiiiapplied to further automate social touch studies. We observed that when the mice are broughtto a distance of 12mm from one another, they whisk simultaneously at each other, which results ina similar pattern of activity in both mice.

In addition to the mutual whisking, we found that thereare brain-wide signals that become synchronized when the mice are at the interacting distance.

Wepropose that this synchrony may be the social interaction signal of the cortex. We also developed a cost-effective system to automatically identify mice, the mice are im-planted with glass RFID tag that contains a unique ID. The glass tags are implanted at the napeof their neck and can be read wirelessly. This setup has been shown to be useful in automatedbehavioural experiments [Murphy et al.

The digitalrenders were drawn by my brother Luis Bolanos, and his help was instrumental in making thefigures easy to digest by the readers. Timothy H. Murphy supervised the project and provided financial support. Chapters 2, 3 are based of an idea that came about at the Neurophotonics Summer School. I designed and built all the software and hardware outlined in chapters 2 and 4, with help from JeffLedue and Luis Bolanos. I conducted the experiments outlined in chapter 3.

The experiments re-lated to differences in cage-mates and non-cage-mates from A. Extremely useful comments and advice were given tome by in alphabetical order : Alex McGirr, Allen W. I am eternally grateful for their kindness andsupport, I am going to miss everyone.

I have learned so many new things,went to many conferences, presented my work in Canada, the U. None ofthose feats would have been possible without the support and encouragement of my supervisor Dr. Timothy Murphy. I believe that I have grown a lot as a future scientist, and it is in great part, thanksto him. Thank you to my committee, Dr. Catharine Rankin and Dr. Michael Gordon. It was thanksto their kind words and amazing feedback that I began to think the project I was working on wasreally interesting.

Thank you to Jeffrey LeDue, he was incredibly supportive of my endeavours, and honestly,when things seemed bleak he would show me where to look for the light. I am incredibly in debtto him, and I wish I can see him again in the future. All those conversations that we would have atlunch time were so interesting and I would look forward to them everyday. Thank you so much to my dear brother Luis, it was especially fun having you at the lab, andthanks to him, my figures look amazing, I believe that they easily convey how we built all of oursetups.

I hope we get to play Super Smash Bros soon. Whether it was random conversations about nothing related to neuroscience, impromptu guitarxvlessons, playing with fire, it was all very important to me. Thank you to my family, my mom, my dad and my sister.

Without their support there is nochance I would be were I am now. Finally, I would like to thank my girlfriend Victoria for always being there for me when thingswere hard at the lab, for her love and support of my aspirations, and for figuring out the bestmethods to motivate me. Coming home and seeing you instantly relaxes me after a stressful day atthe lab. Let us keep the adventures and memories coming through my PhD!!

At its core the structure of the brain is known to be a collection of diverse types ofneurons and supporting cells that, according to a paper published in , form a complex setof four major network systems; motor, sensory, behavioural states and cognitive states [Oh et al. Each of these systems are comprised of specific groups of neurons, and they form intricateconnections. The specific connectivity of the neurons are thought to be one of the main contributorsto the set of complex behaviours in animals [Seung, ].

In recent decades there has been aconsiderable amount of work to try and decipher the connectome of the brain in several species[Ohet al. Connectome refers to thewiring pattern of the brain, and this description can be done at a structural or functional level.

Structural connectivity describes the existence of anatomical tracts connecting two brain regions[Bullmore and Sporns, ]. On the other hand, functional connectivity refers to the causaldependance of specific activity patterns in different regions of the brain [Bullmore and Sporns,].

Much has been done describing the morphological, and physiologicalproperties of neurons[Chung and Deisseroth, , Ragan et al. One thing is forsure: even for a mouse brain, the complexity and diversity of both the connectome and neuronalactivity is immense.

For that reason scientists have had the need to study the brain at multiplescales; macro-, meso- and microscale. At the microscale we describe how individual synapses areconnected to one another and the electrical activity at the level of individual action potentials, forexample, patch clamp experiments on brain slices and reconstructing the connectivity with electronmicroscopy [Oh et al.

But describing the brain at this scale is currently infeasible forlarge brains, due to the large amount of data generated Bock et al. On the other side of thespectrum one can map large scale structural connections utilizing diffusion tensor imaging DTI [Greicius et al. However, this is veryfar from cellular resolution as the size of the individual voxels is typically no smaller than 1mm3. A middle ground is the mesoscale, at this scale it is possible to describe local anddistant structural connections between areas of the brain by labelling specific neurons with tracerproteins allowing to map their inputs and outputs [Oh et al.

Mesoscopic functional imagingis also widely used also referred to as wide field optical mapping WFOM , at this scale both localand global activity changes can be recorded.

This makes it suitable for animal models with smallerbrain sizes mice, rats, marmosets, etc. Mesoscopic functional imaging is usually done by makinguse of a diverse selection of proteins and dyes with varying properties. For instance the voltage sensors have really fast temporal dynamics but have poor SNR,and this means that imaging with these sensors will require a camera with low noise [Ma et al.

Nevertheless, GCaMP has beenadopted widely mainly due to its great SNR and wide selection of transgenic and viral vectors thatallow scientists to express the sensor on specific neurons [Burgess et al. In particular we usedthe GP4. Chronic Window Surgery and Mesoscale Imaging in MiceIn the previous section we described the various scales at which connectivity analysis and invivo imaging has been done in a number of animal models. In particular, we focused on mousemesoscale imaging as it is the main focus of the research done in this thesis.

We presented theidea that imaging at the mesoscopic scale allows us to map activity from both global and localactivity. Previous surgical techniques for mesoscopic imaging necessitated partial or full removalof the skull due to the fact that VSDs needed to be applied to the brain tissue prior to being ableto image [Holtmaat et al. In addition to the open skull, the dyesthemselves have been shown to be phototoxic to the underlying brain, meaning the experimentshad to be done in acute and less naturalistic setting [Lin and Schnitzer, , Peterka et al.

Additionally, the cranial windows that were initially applied to these studies Holtmaat et al. Thus, the need for a non-invasive technique that takes advantage of the new generation of activity3Figure 1.

Out of thisneed a protocol was developed in that describes a procedure for creating chronic trans-cranialwindows on intact bone [Silasi et al. Themice are given a subcutaneous injection of atropine, glucose, and buprenorphine and their scalp isinjected with lidocaine. The fur of the mice is removed exposing the scalp, and the skin is scrubbedthree times with a solution of 0. To ensure the mice are still underanaesthesia their respiration rate and toe pinch response were checked every min.

Then using a scalpel, a skin flap the size of both hemispheres were cut and removed. Sterile cotton tips are then used to remove any connective tissue or fascia to ensure the surface oftheir skulls are clean and free of debris. The titanium bars were placed 4mm posterior to bregmawith respect to the top edge of the bar, on top of lambda.

A single drop of ethyl cyanoacrylate wasplaced to glue the bars to the skull. Once the initial position of the bars are verified a layer of thedental cement is applied to the side of the bar. The bar is held in place until the dental cement ispartially dry min. With the bar fully glued, a layer of the dental cement is applied directly tothe skull.

The cut windows are then placed on the skull before the applied dental cement dries. Itis important to ensure no air bubbles form while placing the windows because they can negativelyaffect imaging quality in that area.

Additional dental cement is applied around the edge of thewindows sealing off the skulls from the air. After the dental cement is fully dry and solid the micereceive a second injection of saline and glucose and they are allowed to recover in their home-cagewith a heating lamp.

The mice are able to be used for experiments 7 days after the surgery havepassed. Cortical Mesoscopic Imaging in MiceThe aforementioned preparation gives us access to the entire dorsal surface of the mouse cortexwhich contains several known cortical areas as shown in figure 1.

Chronic imaging with this preparation has beenpreviously shown to give useful data over multiple months with a spatial resolution capable ofresolving intra-hemispheric and trans-hemispheric cortical dynamics [Silasi et al.

Harraway Donna - When Species Meet

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