Health Disease And Illness Concepts In Medicine Pdf

health disease and illness concepts in medicine pdf

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In the s, "Drapetomania" was the medical term for a disease found among black slaves in the United States. The main symptom was a strange desire to run away from their masters. In earlier centuries gout was understood as a metabolic disease of the affluent, so much so that it became a badge of uppercrust honor—and a medical excuse to avoid hard work.

Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in which disease and infirmity are absent.

Health, Disease, and Illness

Disease , any harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism, generally associated with certain signs and symptoms and differing in nature from physical injury. A diseased organism commonly exhibits signs or symptoms indicative of its abnormal state. Thus, the normal condition of an organism must be understood in order to recognize the hallmarks of disease.

Nevertheless, a sharp demarcation between disease and health is not always apparent. The study of disease is called pathology. It involves the determination of the cause etiology of the disease, the understanding of the mechanisms of its development pathogenesis , the structural changes associated with the disease process morphological changes , and the functional consequences of those changes.

Correctly identifying the cause of a disease is necessary to identifying the proper course of treatment. Humans, other animals , and plants are all susceptible to diseases of some sort. However, that which disrupts the normal functioning of one type of organism may have no effect on the other types. The normal state of an organism represents a condition of delicate physiological balance, or homeostasis , in terms of chemical, physical, and functional processes, maintained by a complex of mechanisms that are not fully understood.

In a fundamental sense, therefore, disease represents the consequences of a breakdown of the homeostatic control mechanisms. In some instances the affected mechanisms are clearly indicated, but in most cases a complex of mechanisms is disturbed, initially or sequentially, and precise definition of the pathogenesis of the ensuing disease is elusive. Death in humans and other mammals , for example, often results directly from heart or lung failure, but the preceding sequence of events may be highly complex, involving disturbances of other organ systems and derangement of other control mechanisms.

Finally, the disease may be caused by some agent external to the organism, such as a chemical that is a toxic agent. In this case the disease is noncommunicable; that is, it affects only the individual organism exposed to it. The external agent may be itself a living organism capable of multiplying within the host and subsequently infecting other organisms; in this case the disease is said to be communicable.

Noncommunicable diseases generally are long-lasting and progress slowly, and thus they are sometimes also referred to as chronic diseases. They can arise from environmental exposures or from genetically determined abnormalities, which may be evident at birth or which may become apparent later in life. The World Health Organization WHO has identified four major types of noncommunicable disease: cancer , cardiovascular disease e.

WHO estimates that, combined, these four groups of conditions account for 82 percent of all deaths from noncommunicable disease. Noncommunicable diseases that arise from inherited genetic abnormalities often leave an individual ill-equipped to survive without some form of treatment. Examples of inherited disease include cystic fibrosis , Down syndrome , and inborn errors of metabolism , which are present at birth.

Examples of inherited diseases that emerge in adulthood include Huntington disease and certain forms of cancer e. Disease Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.

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What is good health?

Metrics details. The concepts of disease, illness and sickness capture fundamentally different aspects of phenomena related to human ailments and healthcare. The philosophy and theory of medicine are making manifold efforts to capture the essence and normative implications of these concepts. Although both scientific fields provide varied valuable insights, they have not been strongly linked to each other. Therefore, the article aims to scrutinise the normative-ethical implications of patient perspectives in building a bridge to the empirical ethics debates. Three potential fields of tension between the illness and the disease perspective are presented. Consequently, findings from empirical research examining patient perspectives on illness are displayed and the practical implications and associated ethical issues which arise are discussed.

Medical anthropology is the research area within cultural anthropology that marries concepts from biological and cultural anthropology to better understand health and disease among humans. It is one of the fastest growing research areas within anthropology. Some would classify it as part of applied anthropology , the fifth often overlooked anthropological sub-discipline. Applied anthropologists are found in many areas of work, including public health, economic development, forensics, linguistics, and human rights, in both rural and urban settings across the globe. For decades, anthropologists have been studying the interaction of cultural values and norms on health-related issues. In order to understand the anthropological approach to health and illness, it is necessary to know the definitions of terms related to the topics. All definitions of health are imbued with moral, ethical, and political implications.

Request PDF | On Jan 1, , James J. McCartney and others published Health​, Disease, & Illness: Concepts in Medicine | Find, read and cite.

Section 3: Concepts of health and wellbeing

New Book Alerts My Cart. In the s, "Drapetomania" was the medical term for a disease found among black slaves in the United States. The main symptom was a strange desire to run away from their masters. In earlier centuries gout was understood as a metabolic disease of the affluent, so much so that it became a badge of uppercrust honor—and a medical excuse to avoid hard work.

The present study examined beliefs about health and illness among a sample of healthy children and young adolescents, from 8 to 14 years old. Respondents were administered a series of open- and closed-ended interview questions and were asked to draw a picture of a sick person. Various dimensions of health and illness were examined, including definition, concern, susceptibility, and locus of control. Several agelinked differences along these dimensions were found. Younger children were more concerned about their health and maintained a more external health locus of control, yet tended to rate their health more positively than older respondents.

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Children's understanding of health and illness concepts: a preventive health perspective

We are currently in the process of updating this chapter and we appreciate your patience whilst this is being completed. Concepts of health, wellbeing and illness, and the aetiology of illness: Section 3. Concepts of health and wellbeing. This is consistent with the biopsychosocial model of health, which considers physiological, psychological and social factors in health and illness, and interactions between these factors. It differs from the traditional medical model, which defines health as the absence of illness or disease and emphasises the role of clinical diagnosis and intervention. The WHO definition links health explicitly with wellbeing, and conceptualises health as a human right requiring physical and social resources to achieve and maintain. From this perspective health is a means to living well, which highlights the link between health and participation in society.

The word health refers to a state of complete emotional and physical well-being. Healthcare exists to help people maintain this optimal state of health. However, despite this expenditure, people in the U. This is due to a variety of factors, including access to healthcare and lifestyle choices. Good health is central to handling stress and living a longer, more active life.




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