Feminism And Linguistic Theory Pdf

feminism and linguistic theory pdf

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Michael Starks. Oxford University Press. De Gruyter Mouton.

Feminist theory

Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states , enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the " world system ". This theory was officially developed in the late s following World War II, as scholars searched for the root issue in the lack of development in Latin America.

The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theory , an earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today's underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today's developed areas at some time in the past, and that, therefore, the task of helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment , technology transfers , and closer integration into the world market.

Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy.

Dependency theory no longer has many proponents, [ citation needed ] though some writers have argued for its continuing relevance as a conceptual orientation to the global division of wealth.

Liberal reformists typically advocate for targeted policy interventions, while the neo-Marxists believe in a command-centered economy. In Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism , Lenin proposed that wealth would extend to the advanced industrial capitalist countries from the underdeveloped countries.

This idea is known as the—Singer hypothesis Prebisch—Singer thesis]]. Prebisch, an Argentine economist at the United Nations Commission for Latin America UNCLA , went on to conclude that the underdeveloped nations must employ some degree of protectionism in trade if they were to enter a self-sustaining development path.

He argued that import-substitution industrialisation ISI , not a trade-and-export orientation , was the best strategy for underdeveloped countries. Baran in with the publication of his The Political Economy of Growth. Using the Latin American dependency model, the Guyanese Marxist historian Walter Rodney , in his book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa , described in an Africa that had been consciously exploited by European imperialists, leading directly to the modern underdevelopment of most of the continent.

The theory was popular in the s and s as a criticism of modernization theory, which was falling increasingly out of favor because of continued widespread poverty in much of the world. At that time the assumptions of liberal theories of development were under attack. The Latin American Structuralist and the American Marxist schools had significant differences but, according to economist Matias Vernengo, they agreed on some basic points:.

Technology — the Promethean force unleashed by the Industrial Revolution — is at the center of stage. The Center countries controlled the technology and the systems for generating technology. Foreign capital could not solve the problem, since it only led to limited transmission of technology, but not the process of innovation itself.

Baran and others frequently spoke of the international division of labour — skilled workers in the center; unskilled in the periphery — when discussing key features of dependency.

Baran placed surplus extraction and capital accumulation at the center of his analysis. Development depends on a population's producing more than it needs for bare subsistence a surplus. Further, some of that surplus must be used for capital accumulation — the purchase of new means of production — if development is to occur; spending the surplus on things like luxury consumption does not produce development. Baran noted two predominant kinds of economic activity in poor countries.

In the older of the two, plantation agriculture, which originated in colonial times , most of the surplus goes to the landowners, who use it to emulate the consumption patterns of wealthy people in the developed world; much of it thus goes to purchase foreign-produced luxury items —automobiles, clothes, etc. The more recent kind of economic activity in the periphery is industry—but of a particular kind.

It is usually carried out by foreigners, although often in conjunction with local interests. It is often under special tariff protection or other government concessions.

The surplus from this production mostly goes to two places: part of it is sent back to the foreign shareholders as profit ; the other part is spent on conspicuous consumption in a similar fashion to that of the plantation aristocracy.

Again, little is used for development. Baran thought that political revolution was necessary to break this pattern. In the s, members of the Latin American Structuralist school argued that there is more latitude in the system than the Marxists believed.

They argued that it allows for partial development or "dependent development"—development, but still under the control of outside decision makers. They cited the partly successful attempts at industrialisation in Latin America around that time Argentina, Brazil, Mexico as evidence for this hypothesis.

They were led to the position that dependency is not a relation between commodity exporters and industrialised countries, but between countries with different degrees of industrialisation.

In their approach, there is a distinction made between the economic and political spheres: economically, one may be developed or underdeveloped; but even if somewhat economically developed, one may be politically autonomous or dependent. The importance of multinational corporations and state promotion of technology were emphasised by the Latin American Structuralists. Fajnzybler has made a distinction between systemic or authentic competitiveness, which is the ability to compete based on higher productivity, and spurious competitiveness, which is based on low wages.

The third-world debt crisis of the s and continued stagnation in Africa and Latin America in the s caused some doubt as to the feasibility or desirability of "dependent development". The sine qua non of the dependency relationship is not the difference in technological sophistication, as traditional dependency theorists believe, but rather the difference in financial strength between core and peripheral countries—particularly the inability of peripheral countries to borrow in their own currency.

He believes that the hegemonic position of the United States is very strong because of the importance of its financial markets and because it controls the international reserve currency — the US dollar.

He believes that the end of the Bretton Woods international financial agreements in the early s considerably strengthened the United States' position because it removed some constraints on their financial actions. Theotonio dos Santos described a "new dependency", which focused on both the internal and external relations of less-developed countries of the periphery, derived from a Marxian analysis. Former Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso in office — wrote extensively on dependency theory while in political exile during the s, arguing that it was an approach to studying the economic disparities between the centre and periphery.

Cardoso summarized his version of dependency theory as follows:. The analysis of development patterns in the s and beyond is complicated by the fact that capitalism develops not smoothly, but with very strong and self-repeating ups and downs, called cycles. With the economic growth of India and some East Asian economies, dependency theory has lost some of its former influence.

Many of these authors focused their attention on Latin America; dependency theory in the Islamic world was primarily refined by the Egyptian economist Samir Amin.

Tausch, [15] based on works of Amin from to , lists the following main characteristics of periphery capitalism:. The American sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein refined the Marxist aspect of the theory and expanded on it, to form world-systems theory. World Systems Theory is also known as WST and aligns closely with the idea of the "rich get richer and the poor get poorer" Wallerstein states that the poor and peripheral nations continue to get more poor as the developed core nations use their resources to become richer.

Wallerstein believed in a tri-modal rather than a bi-modal system because he viewed the world-systems as more complicated than a simplistic classification as either core or periphery nations. To Wallerstein, many nations do not fit into one of these two categories, so he proposed the idea of a semi-periphery as an in between state within his model.

The rise of one group of semi-peripheries tends to be at the cost of another group, but the unequal structure of the world economy based on unequal exchange tends to remain stable. Dependency theory has also been associated with Johan Galtung 's structural theory of imperialism.

Dependency theorists hold that short-term spurts of growth notwithstanding, long-term growth in the periphery will be imbalanced and unequal, and will tend towards high negative current account balances. What seemed like spectacular long-run growth may in the end turn out to be just a short run cyclical spurt after a long recession. Cycle time plays an important role. Giovanni Arrighi believed that the logic of accumulation on a world scale shifts over time, and that the s and beyond once more showed a deregulated phase of world capitalism with a logic, characterized - in contrast to earlier regulatory cycles - by the dominance of financial capital.

It is argued that, at this stage, the role of unequal exchange in the entire relationship of dependency cannot be underestimated. The former ideological head of the Blekingegade Gang and political activist Torkil Lauesen argues in his book The Global Perspective that political theory and practice stemming from dependency theory are more relevant than ever.

Economic policies based on dependency theory have been criticized by free-market economists such as Peter Bauer and Martin Wolf and others: [19].

Market economists cite a number of examples in their arguments against dependency theory. The improvement of India 's economy after it moved from state-controlled business to open trade is one of the most often cited see also economy of India , The Commanding Heights. India's example seems to contradict dependency theorists' claims concerning comparative advantage and mobility, as much as its economic growth originated from movements such as outsourcing — one of the most mobile forms of capital transfer.

In Africa, states which have emphasized import-substitution development, such as Zimbabwe , have typically been among the worst performers, while the continent's most successful non-oil based economies, such as Egypt , South Africa , and Tunisia , have pursued trade-based development.

According to economic historian Robert C. Allen, dependency theory's claims are "debatable" due to fact that the protectionism that was implemented in Latin America as a solution ended up failing.

A large argument opposing the Dependency Theory is the subjectivity in the theory and the terms that are often used. Words such as developed and underdeveloped that construct the argument of dependency theory are subjective and different people will view these different terms in different lights. Many nations have been affected by both the positive and negative effects of the Dependency Theory.

The idea of national dependency on another nation is not a relatively new concept even though the dependency theory itself is rather new. Dependency is perpetuated by using capitalism and finance. The dependent nations come to owe the developed nations so much money and capital that it is not possible to escape the debt, continuing the dependency for the foreseeable future.

An example of the dependency theory is that during the years of to Britain and other European nations took over or colonialized other nations. They used their superior military technology and naval strength at the time to do this. This began an economic system in the Americas, Africa, and Asia to then export the natural materials from their land to Europe. After shipping the materials to Europe, Britain and the other European countries made products with these materials and then sent them back to colonized parts of the Americas, Africa, and Asia.

Dependency theory is considered rather controversial and many say it is not still in effect. Some scholars and politicians claim that with the decline of colonialism, dependency has been erased. Aid dependency is an economic problem described as the reliance of less developed countries LDCs on more developed countries MDCs for financial aid and other resources.

More specifically, aid dependency refers to the proportion of government spending that is given by foreign donors. Aid dependency arose from long term provisions of aid to countries in need in which the receiving country became accustomed to and developed a dependency syndrome. International development aid became widely popularized post World-War Two due to first-world countries trying to create a more open economy as well as cold war competition. During the economic crisis in the s and the s, a great deal of Sub-Saharan countries in Africa saw an influx of aid money which in turn resulted in dependency over the next few decades.

These countries became so dependent that the President of Tanzania , Benjamin W. It is similar to drug addiction. While the widespread belief is that aid is motivated only by assisting poor countries, and this is true in some cases, there is substantial evidence that suggests strategic, political, and welfare interests of the donors are driving forces behind aid. From these studies they found that US aid flows are influenced by military as well as strategic factors.

British and French aid is given to countries that were former colonies , and also to countries in which they have significant investment interest and strong trade relations. A main concern revolving around the issue of foreign aid is that the citizens in the country that is benefiting from aid lose motivation to work after receiving aid.

In addition, some citizens will deliberately work less, resulting in a lower income, which in turn qualifies them for aid provision. A country with long-term aid dependency remains unable to be self-sufficient and is less likely to make meaningful GDP growth which would allow for them to rely less on aid from richer countries. Food aid has been criticized heavily along with other aid imports due to its damage to the domestic economy. A higher dependency on aid imports results in a decline in the domestic demand for those products.

In the long-run, the agricultural industry in LDC countries grows weaker due to long-term declines in demand as a result from food aid. In the future when aid is decreased, many LDC countries's agricultural markets are under-developed and therefore it is cheaper to import agricultural products.

Political dependency occurs when donors have too much influence in the governance of the receiving country. Government corruptibility increases as a result and inhibits reform of the government and political process in the country.

Feminism and Linguistic Theory

Feminist philosophy of language has come a long way in a very short time period. Initially, most work in the area was critical, calling for changes either to language itself or to philosophy of language. More recently, however, the dynamic has changed, with the advent of several major positive research programmes within philosophy of language. In this entry, we first discuss the critiques that constitute the first phase of feminist work in this area, before moving onto the positive research programmes that have recently come to the fore. Our focus in this entry will generally be on the analytic tradition. For continental approaches, see the entries on feminist approaches to the intersection of analytic and continental philosophy , feminist approaches to the intersection of pragmatism and continental philosophy.

Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. It offers a sterling example of the illuminations which are made possible when questions of gender are firmly at the heart of serious critical enquiry. An introduction to theories about language in attempts to understand and transform women's lives.

Feminism And Linguistic Theory

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Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states , enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the " world system ". This theory was officially developed in the late s following World War II, as scholars searched for the root issue in the lack of development in Latin America.

Chauvinism is the irrational belief in the superiority or dominance of one's own group or people, who are seen as strong and virtuous, while others are considered weak or unworthy. According to legend, French soldier Nicolas Chauvin was badly wounded in the Napoleonic Wars and received a meager pension for his injuries. After Napoleon abdicated, Chauvin maintained his fanatical Bonapartist belief in the messianic mission of Imperial France, despite the unpopularity of this view under the Bourbon Restoration.


Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. It examines women's and men's social roles , experiences, interests, chores, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology , communication , media studies , psychoanalysis , [1] home economics , literature , education , and philosophy. Feminist theory often focuses on analyzing gender inequality.

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Feminism and Linguistic Theory

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It offers a sterling example of the illuminations which are made possible when questions of gender are firmly at the heart of serious critical enquiry.