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- Ethical Considerations When Using Social Media for Evidence Generation
- Social networking ethics: Developing best practices for the new small world.
- Ethics and social networking sites: a disclosive analysis of Facebook
- Social networking ethics: Developing best practices for the new small world.
Children need champions.
Ethical Considerations When Using Social Media for Evidence Generation
In the first decade of the 21 st century, new media technologies for social networking such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and YouTube began to transform the social, political and informational practices of individuals and institutions across the globe, inviting a philosophical response from the community of applied ethicists and philosophers of technology.
Nor are the ethical implications of these technologies strictly interpersonal. The complex web of interactions between social networking service users and their online and offline communities, social network developers, corporations, governments and other institutions—along with the diverse and sometimes conflicting motives and interests of these various stakeholders—will continue to require rigorous philosophical analysis for decades to come.
Section 1 of the entry outlines the history and working definition of social networking services hereafter referred to as SNS. Section 2 identifies the early philosophical foundations of reflection on the ethics of online social networks, leading up to the emergence of Web 2. Section 3 reviews the primary ethical topic areas around which philosophical reflections on SNS have, to date, converged: privacy; identity and community; friendship, virtue and the good life; democracy and the public sphere; and cybercrime.
Finally, Section 4 reviews some of the metaethical issues potentially impacted by the emergence of SNS. These include structured social affiliations and institutions such as private and public clubs, lodges and churches as well as communications technologies such as postal and courier systems, telegraphs and telephones. Prior to the emergence of Web 2. These early computer social networks were systems that grew up organically, typically as ways of exploiting commercial, academic or other institutional software for more broadly social purposes.
In contrast, Web 2. Most notably, Web 2. Among the first websites to employ the new standards explicitly for general social networking purposes were Orkut, MySpace, LinkedIn, Friendster, Bebo, Habbo and Facebook. More recent and specific trends in online social networking include the rise of sites dedicated to media sharing YouTube, Flickr, Instagram, Vine , microblogging Tumblr, Twitter , location-based networking Foursquare, Loopt, Yelp, YikYak and interest-sharing Pinterest.
While Computer and Information Ethics certainly accommodates an interdisciplinary approach, the direction and problems of that field have largely been defined by philosophically-trained scholars. Yet this has not been the early pattern for the ethics of social networking. Consequently, those philosophers who have turned their attention to social networking and ethics have had to decide whether to pursue their inquiries independently, drawing only from traditional philosophical resources in applied computer ethics and the philosophy of technology, or to develop their views in consultation with the growing body of empirical data and conclusions already being generated by other disciplines.
While this entry will primarily confine itself to reviewing existing philosophical research on social networking ethics, links between those researches and studies in other disciplinary contexts continue to be highly significant. Among the first philosophers to take an interest in the ethical significance of social uses of the Internet were phenomenological philosophers of technology Albert Borgmann and Hubert Dreyfus. While Borgmann and Dreyfus were primarily responding to the immediate precursors of Web 2.
But he goes on to claim that online social environments are themselves ethically deficient:. This model, known as technological determinism , represents technology as an independent driver of social and cultural change, shaping human institutions, practices and values in a manner largely beyond our control. For example, Borgmann is charged with ignoring the fact that physical reality does not always enable or facilitate connection, nor does it do so equally for all persons.
Dreyfus suggests that what online engagements intrinsically lack is exposure to risk , and without risk, Dreyfus tells us, there can be no true meaning or commitment found in the electronic domain. Instead, we are drawn to online social environments precisely because they allow us to play with notions of identity, commitment and meaning, without risking the irrevocable consequences that ground real identities and relationships.
As Dreyfus puts it:. That said, such predictive failures may not, in the long view, turn out to be fatal to their judgments. These topics are also tightly linked to the novel features and distinctive functionalities of SNS, more so than some other issues of interest in computer and information ethics that relate to more general Internet functionalities for example, issues of copyright and intellectual property.
Social networking technologies have added a new sense of urgency and new layers of complexity to the existing debates among philosophers about privacy and information technology. For example, standing philosophical debates about whether privacy should be defined in terms of control over information Elgesem , restricting access to information Tavani or contextual integrity Nissenbaum must now be re-examined in the light of the privacy practices of Facebook, Twitter and other SNS.
This has become a locus of much critical attention. Facebook has been a particular lightning-rod for criticism of its privacy practices Spinello , but it is just the most visible member of a far broader and more complex network of SNS actors with access to unprecedented quantities of sensitive personal data. These new actors in the information environment create particular problems with respect to privacy norms.
For example, since it is the ability to access information freely shared by others that makes SNS uniquely attractive and useful, and given that users often minimize or fail to fully understand the implications of sharing information on SNS, we may find that contrary to traditional views of information privacy, giving users greater control over their information-sharing practices may actually lead to decreased privacy for themselves or others.
Moreover, in the shift from early Web 2. That is, such architectures tend to treat human relations as if they are all of a kind, ignoring the profound differences among types of social relation familial, professional, collegial, commercial, civic, etc. As a consequence, the privacy controls of such architectures often fail to account for the variability of privacy norms within different but overlapping social spheres.
A key design question, then, is how SNS privacy interfaces can be made more accessible and more socially intuitive for users. Hull et al. These phenomena raise many ethical concerns, the most general of which may be this: how can static normative conceptions of the value of privacy be used to evaluate the SNS practices that are destabilizing those very conceptions?
In an early study of online communities, Bakardjieva and Feenberg suggested that the rise of communities predicated on the open exchange of information may in fact require us to relocate our focus in information ethics from privacy concerns to concerns about alienation; that is, the exploitation of information for purposes not intended by the relevant community.
Finally, privacy issues with SNS highlight a broader philosophical problem involving the intercultural dimensions of information ethics; Rafael Capurro has noted the way in which narrowly Western conceptions of privacy occlude other legitimate ethical concerns regarding new media practices. For example, he notes that in addition to Western worries about protecting the private domain from public exposure, we must also take care to protect the public sphere from the excessive intrusion of the private.
Though he illustrates the point with a comment about intrusive uses of cell phones in public spaces , 47 , the rise of mobile social networking has amplified this concern by several factors. The ethical and metaphysical issues generated by the formation of virtual identities and communities have attracted much philosophical interest see Introna and Rodogno Yet SNS still enable users to manage their self-presentation and their social networks in ways that offline social spaces at home, school or work often do not permit.
Do they display any notable differences from the aspirational identities of non-SNS users? Are the values and aspirations made explicit in SNS contexts more or less heteronomous in origin than those expressed in non-SNS contexts? Do the more explicitly aspirational identity performances on SNS encourage users to take steps to actually embody those aspirations offline, or do they tend to weaken the motivation to do so?
He admits that in theory the many-to-many or one-to-many relations enabled by SNS allow for exposure to a greater variety of opinions and attitudes, but in practice Parsell worries that they often have the opposite effect. Building from de Laat , who suggests that members of virtual communities embrace a distinctly hyperactive style of communication to compensate for diminished informational cues, Parsell claims that in the absence of the full range of personal identifiers evident through face-to-face contact, SNS may also promote the deindividuation of personal identity by exaggerating and reinforcing the significance of singular shared traits liberal, conservative, gay, Catholic, etc.
Parsell also notes the existence of inherently pernicious identities and communities that may be enabled or enhanced by some Web 2. While Parsell believes that certain Web 2.
Such tools, however, come at some cost to user autonomy—a value that in other circumstances is critical to respecting the ethical demands of identity, as noted by Noemi Manders-Huits She argues that SNS developers have a duty to protect and promote the interests of their users in autonomously constructing and managing their own moral and practical identities. SNS such as Facebook can also be viewed as enabling authenticity in important ways.
The messy collision of my family, friends and coworkers on Facebook can be managed with various tools offered by the site, allowing me to direct posts only to specific sub-networks that I define.
But the far simpler and less time-consuming strategy is to come to terms with the collision—allowing each network member to get a glimpse of who I am to others, while at the same time asking myself whether these expanded presentations project a person that is more multidimensional and interesting, or one that is manifestly insincere.
As Tamara Wandel and Anthony Beavers put it:. Even so, Dean Cocking argues that many online social environments, by amplifying active aspects of self-presentation under our direct control, compromise the important function of passive modes of embodied self-presentation beyond our conscious control, such as body language, facial expression, and spontaneous displays of emotion Ethical preoccupations with the impact of SNS on our authentic self-constitution and representation may also be regarded as assuming a false dichotomy between online and offline identities; the informational theory of personal identity offered by Luciano Floridi problematizes this distinction.
Soraj Hongladarom employs such an informational metaphysic to deny that any clear boundary can be drawn between our offline selves and our selves as cultivated through SNS. Instead, our personal identities online and off are taken as externally constituted by our informational relations to other selves, events and objects. SNS can facilitate many types of relational connections: LinkedIn encourages social relations organized around our professional lives, Twitter is useful for creating lines of communication between ordinary individuals and figures of public interest, MySpace was for a time a popular way for musicians to promote themselves and communicate with their fans, and Facebook, which began as a way to link university cohorts and now connects people across the globe, has seen a surge in business profiles aimed at establishing links to existing and future customers.
This view is robustly opposed by Adam Briggle , who notes that online friendships might enjoy certain unique advantages. For example, Briggle asserts that friendships formed online might be more candid than offline ones, thanks to the sense of security provided by physical distance , He also notes the way in which asynchronous written communications can promote more deliberate and thoughtful exchanges , But it did not take long for empirical studies of actual SNS usage trends to force a profound rethinking of this problem-space.
Mobile SNS applications such as Foursquare, Loopt and Google Latitude amplify this type of functionality further, by enabling friends to locate one another in their community in real-time, enabling spontaneous meetings at restaurants, bars and shops that would otherwise happen only by coincidence.
Yet lingering ethical concerns remain about the way in which SNS can distract users from the needs of those in their immediate physical surroundings consider the widely lamented trend of users obsessively checking their social media feeds during family dinners, business meetings, romantic dates and symphony performances.
The debate over the value and quality of online friendships continues Sharp ; Froding and Peterson ; Elder ; in large part because the typical pattern of those friendships, like most social networking phenomena, continues to evolve.
Edward Spence further suggests that to adequately address the significance of SNS and related information and communication technologies for the good life, we must also expand the scope of philosophical inquiry beyond its present concern with narrowly interpersonal ethics to the more universal ethical question of prudential wisdom. Do SNS and related technologies help us to cultivate the broader intellectual virtue of knowing what it is to live well, and how to best pursue it?
Or do they tend to impede its development? This concern about prudential wisdom and the good life is part of a growing philosophical interest in using the resources of classical virtue ethics to evaluate the impact of SNS and related technologies, whether these resources are broadly Aristotelian Vallor , Confucian Wong or both Ess This program of research promotes inquiry into the impact of SNS not merely on the cultivation of prudential virtue, but on the development of a host of other moral and communicative virtues, such as honesty, patience, justice, loyalty, benevolence and empathy.
As is the case with privacy, identity, community and friendship on SNS, ethical debates about the impact of SNS on civil discourse, freedom and democracy in the public sphere must be seen as extensions of a broader discussion about the political implications of the Internet, one that predates Web 2.
The worry is that such insularity will promote extremism and the reinforcement of ill-founded opinions, while also preventing citizens of a democracy from recognizing their shared interests and experiences Sunstein Finally, there is the question of the extent to which SNS can facilitate political activism, civil disobedience and popular revolutions resulting in the overthrow of authoritarian regimes.
Commonly referenced examples include the North African revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia, with which Facebook and Twitter were respectively associated Marturano ; Frick and Oberprantacher When SNS in particular are considered in light of these questions, some distinctive considerations arise. First, sites like Facebook and Twitter as opposed to narrower SNS utilities such as LinkedIn facilitate the sharing of, and exposure to, an extremely diverse range of types of discourse.
On any given day on Facebook a user may encounter in her NewsFeed a link to an article in a respected political magazine followed by a video of a cat in a silly costume, followed by a link to a new scientific study, followed by a lengthy status update someone has posted about their lunch, followed by a photo of a popular political figure overlaid with a clever and subversive caption. Vacation photos are mixed in with political rants, invitations to cultural events, birthday reminders and data-driven graphs created to undermine common political, moral or economic beliefs.
Thus while a user has a tremendous amount of liberty to choose which forms of discourse to pay closer attention to, and tools with which to hide or prioritize the posts of certain members of her network, she cannot easily shield herself from at least a superficial acquaintance with a diversity of private and public concerns of her fellows.
This has the potential to offer at least some measure of protection against the extreme insularity and fragmentation of discourse that is incompatible with the public sphere. Philosophers of technology often speak of the affordances or gradients of particular technologies in given contexts Vallor insofar as they make certain patterns of use more attractive or convenient for users while not rendering alternative patterns impossible.
Third, one must ask whether SNS can skirt the dangers of a plebiscite model of democratic discourse, in which minority voices are inevitably dispersed and drowned out by the many. Existing SNS lack the institutional structures necessary to ensure that minority voices enjoy not only free, but qualitatively equal access to the deliberative function of the public sphere.
Fourth, one must also consider the quality of informational exchanges on SNS and the extent to which they promote a genuinely dialogical public sphere marked by the exercise of critical rationality.
While we have noted above that exposure to well-informed opinions and reliable evidential sources is facilitated by many of the most popular SNS, exposure does not guarantee attention or consumption.
Many scholars worry that in SNS environments, substantive contributions to civic discourse increasingly function as flotsam on a virtual sea of trivially amusing or shallow content, weakening the civic habits and practices of critical rationality that we need in order to function as well-informed and responsible democratic citizens Carr ; Ess Furthermore, while the most popular SNS do promote norms of responsive practice, these norms tend to privilege brevity and immediate impact over substance and depth in communication; Vallor suggests that this bodes poorly for the cultivation of those communicative virtues essential to a flourishing public sphere.
A fifth issue for online democracy relates to the contentious debate emerging on social media platforms about the extent to which controversial or unpopular speech ought to be tolerated or punished by private actors, especially when the consequences manifest in traditional offline contexts and spaces such as the university.
For example, the norms of academic freedom in the U. It remains to be seen what equilibrium can be found between civility and free expression in communities increasingly mediated by SNS communications.
There is also the question of whether SNS will necessarily preserve a democratic ethos as they come to reflect increasingly pluralistic and international social networks. An even more pressing question is whether civic discourse and activism on SNS will be compromised or manipulated by the commercial interests that currently own and manage the technical infrastructure.
This concern is driven by the growing economic power and political influence of companies in the technology sector, and the potentially disenfranchising and disempowering effects of an economic model in which users play a fundamentally passive role Floridi
Social networking ethics: Developing best practices for the new small world.
Moral Reasoning at Work pp Cite as. Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Instagram, and other social media have radically changed the ways in which organizations, groups, and individuals spread, share, and discuss ideas and information. They provide platforms for expressing opinions very rapidly to a wide audience, without interference from an editor or a group of editors. With traditional platforms like newspapers, radio, and television, the steps from formulating a viewpoint to reaching an audience with it tend to be complex and slow. The sender will usually have to convince someone with editorial powers that the message is worth publishing. This is not so with social media, where each person can be his or her own editor and immediately release personal content to an audience. From an organizational perspective, the dramatic changes in publicity options create a range of ethical challenges.
recommendations for best practices. Keywords: Social media, self-disclosure, ethics, professionalism.
Ethics and social networking sites: a disclosive analysis of Facebook
Although primarily used for social networking and often used for social support and dissemination, data on social media platforms are increasingly being used to facilitate research. However, the ethical challenges in conducting social media research remain of great concern. Although much debated in the literature, it is the views of the public that are most pertinent to inform future practice. The aim of our study was to ascertain attitudes on the ethical considerations of using social media as a data source for research as expressed by social media users and researchers.
Social networking ethics: Developing best practices for the new small world.
This paper aims to provide insights into the moral values embodied by a popular social networking site SNS , Facebook. The authors adopt the position that technology as well as humans has a moral character in order to disclose ethical concerns that are not transparent to users of the site. Much research on the ethics of information systems has focused on the way that people deploy particular technologies, and the consequences arising, with a view to making policy recommendations and ethical interventions. By focusing on technology as a moral actor with reach across and beyond the internet, the authors reveal the complex and diffuse nature of ethical responsibility and the consequent implications for governance of SNS. The authors situate their research in a body of work known as disclosive ethics, and argue for an ongoing process of evaluating SNS to reveal their moral importance. Along with that of other authors in the genre, this work is largely descriptive, but the paper engages with prior research by Brey and Introna to highlight the scope for theory development. Governance measures that require the developers of social networking sites to revise their designs fail to address the diffuse nature of ethical responsibility in this case.
The research team recognized the various privacy concerns of the individuals related to their personal information. Therefore, the research team took many steps to protect the privacy of the research participants such as removal of student identity information from the dataset. The dataset was also reviewed by the institutional review board and other researchers were given access to this data on the condition that they will agree to strict terms and conditions of data use. However, these steps were proved to insufficient to protect the privacy of the data as identity of the subjects was quickly discovered Lewis, On the business side, there are many stories of violation of ethical principles. Target used this information to send coupons for baby items to customers according to their pregnancy scores.
Social media has a much wider reach beyond marketing and technology. Other implications are rarely discussed. There are rules of ethics and etiquette for social media that must be followed. Ethics, by definition, is the concept of what is good, bad, right and wrong. In social media, the right ethic equals the right perspective and the right thinking on how to leverage social media appropriately and how to engage people in the right manner. Etiquette is a code of behavior within the context of our society. In social media, the right etiquette equals acting the right way.
Информация, которую он выдал… Она резко подняла голову. Возможно ли. Информация, которую он выдал. Если Стратмор получил от Следопыта информацию, значит, тот работал. Она оказалась бессмысленной, потому что он ввел задание в неверной последовательности, но ведь Следопыт работал. Но Сьюзан тут же сообразила, что могла быть еще одна причина отключения Следопыта.
Я просматриваю регистратор лифта Стратмора. - Мидж посмотрела в монитор и постучала костяшками пальцев по столу.
Это личный кабинет директора. - Это где-то здесь, - пробормотала она, вглядываясь в текст. - Стратмор обошел фильтры. Я в этом уверена.