File Name: software maintenance and evolution a roadmap .zip
- Software Evolution and Software Evolution Processes
- Software Engineering - Quick Guide
- Software Evolution Visualization: Status, Challenges, and Research Directions
- Chapter 5: Software Maintenance
Software Evolution and Software Evolution Processes
Let us first understand what software engineering stands for. The term is made of two words, software and engineering. Software is more than just a program code. A program is an executable code, which serves some computational purpose. Software is considered to be collection of executable programming code, associated libraries and documentations.
Software, when made for a specific requirement is called software product. Engineering on the other hand, is all about developing products, using well-defined, scientific principles and methods. Software engineering is an engineering branch associated with development of software product using well-defined scientific principles, methods and procedures. The outcome of software engineering is an efficient and reliable software product. Software engineering is the establishment and use of sound engineering principles in order to obtain economically software that is reliable and work efficiently on real machines.
The process of developing a software product using software engineering principles and methods is referred to as software evolution. This includes the initial development of software and its maintenance and updates, till desired software product is developed, which satisfies the expected requirements. Evolution starts from the requirement gathering process. After which developers create a prototype of the intended software and show it to the users to get their feedback at the early stage of software product development.
The users suggest changes, on which several consecutive updates and maintenance keep on changing too. This process changes to the original software, till the desired software is accomplished. Even after the user has desired software in hand, the advancing technology and the changing requirements force the software product to change accordingly.
Re-creating software from scratch and to go one-on-one with requirement is not feasible. The only feasible and economical solution is to update the existing software so that it matches the latest requirements. Lehman has given laws for software evolution. He divided the software into three different categories:.
Software paradigms refer to the methods and steps, which are taken while designing the software. There are many methods proposed and are in work today, but we need to see where in the software engineering these paradigms stand. These can be combined into various categories, though each of them is contained in one another:. Programming paradigm is a subset of Software design paradigm which is further a subset of Software development paradigm.
This Paradigm is known as software engineering paradigms where all the engineering concepts pertaining to the development of software are applied. It includes various researches and requirement gathering which helps the software product to build.
It consists of —. The need of software engineering arises because of higher rate of change in user requirements and environment on which the software is working. A software product can be judged by what it offers and how well it can be used. This software must satisfy on the following grounds:.
This aspect briefs about how well a software has the capabilities to maintain itself in the ever-changing environment:.
In short, Software engineering is a branch of computer science, which uses well-defined engineering concepts required to produce efficient, durable, scalable, in-budget and on-time software products. Software Development Life Cycle, SDLC for short, is a well-defined, structured sequence of stages in software engineering to develop the intended software product.
SDLC provides a series of steps to be followed to design and develop a software product efficiently. SDLC framework includes the following steps:. This is the first step where the user initiates the request for a desired software product. He contacts the service provider and tries to negotiate the terms. He submits his request to the service providing organization in writing.
This step onwards the software development team works to carry on the project. The team holds discussions with various stakeholders from problem domain and tries to bring out as much information as possible on their requirements. The requirements are contemplated and segregated into user requirements, system requirements and functional requirements.
The requirements are collected using a number of practices as given -. After requirement gathering, the team comes up with a rough plan of software process. At this step the team analyzes if a software can be made to fulfill all requirements of the user and if there is any possibility of software being no more useful. It is found out, if the project is financially, practically and technologically feasible for the organization to take up.
There are many algorithms available, which help the developers to conclude the feasibility of a software project. At this step the developers decide a roadmap of their plan and try to bring up the best software model suitable for the project. System analysis includes Understanding of software product limitations, learning system related problems or changes to be done in existing systems beforehand, identifying and addressing the impact of project on organization and personnel etc.
The project team analyzes the scope of the project and plans the schedule and resources accordingly. Next step is to bring down whole knowledge of requirements and analysis on the desk and design the software product.
The inputs from users and information gathered in requirement gathering phase are the inputs of this step. The output of this step comes in the form of two designs; logical design and physical design. Engineers produce meta-data and data dictionaries, logical diagrams, data-flow diagrams and in some cases pseudo codes. This step is also known as programming phase. The implementation of software design starts in terms of writing program code in the suitable programming language and developing error-free executable programs efficiently.
Errors may ruin the software from critical level to its own removal. Early discovery of errors and their remedy is the key to reliable software. Software may need to be integrated with the libraries, databases and other program s. This stage of SDLC is involved in the integration of software with outer world entities. This means installing the software on user machines.
At times, software needs post-installation configurations at user end. Software is tested for portability and adaptability and integration related issues are solved during implementation. This phase confirms the software operation in terms of more efficiency and less errors.
If required, the users are trained on, or aided with the documentation on how to operate the software and how to keep the software operational. The software is maintained timely by updating the code according to the changes taking place in user end environment or technology. This phase may face challenges from hidden bugs and real-world unidentified problems. As time elapses, the software may decline on the performance front.
It may go completely obsolete or may need intense upgradation. Hence a pressing need to eliminate a major portion of the system arises. This phase includes archiving data and required software components, closing down the system, planning disposition activity and terminating system at appropriate end-of-system time. The software development paradigm helps developer to select a strategy to develop the software.
A software development paradigm has its own set of tools, methods and procedures, which are expressed clearly and defines software development life cycle. A few of software development paradigms or process models are defined as follows:. Waterfall model is the simplest model of software development paradigm. It says the all the phases of SDLC will function one after another in linear manner.
That is, when the first phase is finished then only the second phase will start and so on. This model assumes that everything is carried out and taken place perfectly as planned in the previous stage and there is no need to think about the past issues that may arise in the next phase.
This model does not work smoothly if there are some issues left at the previous step. The sequential nature of model does not allow us go back and undo or redo our actions.
This model is best suited when developers already have designed and developed similar software in the past and are aware of all its domains. This model leads the software development process in iterations. It projects the process of development in cyclic manner repeating every step after every cycle of SDLC process. The software is first developed on very small scale and all the steps are followed which are taken into consideration. Then, on every next iteration, more features and modules are designed, coded, tested and added to the software.
Every cycle produces a software, which is complete in itself and has more features and capabilities than that of the previous one. After each iteration, the management team can do work on risk management and prepare for the next iteration. Because a cycle includes small portion of whole software process, it is easier to manage the development process but it consumes more resources.
Spiral model is a combination of both, iterative model and one of the SDLC model. It can be seen as if you choose one SDLC model and combine it with cyclic process iterative model.
This model considers risk, which often goes un-noticed by most other models. The model starts with determining objectives and constraints of the software at the start of one iteration. Next phase is of prototyping the software. This includes risk analysis. Then one standard SDLC model is used to build the software. In the fourth phase of the plan of next iteration is prepared. The major drawback of waterfall model is we move to the next stage only when the previous one is finished and there was no chance to go back if something is found wrong in later stages.
V-Model provides means of testing of software at each stage in reverse manner. At every stage, test plans and test cases are created to verify and validate the product according to the requirement of that stage.
Software Engineering - Quick Guide
Software development efforts result in the delivery of a software product that satisfies user requirements. Accordingly, the software product must change or evolve. Once in operation, defects are uncovered, operating environments change, and new user requirements surface. The maintenance phase of the life cycle begins following a warranty period or postimplementation support delivery, but maintenance activities occur much earlier. Software maintenance is an integral part of a software life cycle.
Software evolution is one of the most important topics in modern software engineering research. This activity requires the analysis of large amounts of data describing the current software system structure as well as its previous history. Software visualization can be helpful in this scenario, as it can summarize this complex data into easy to interpret visual scenarios. This paper presents an interactive differential approach for visualizing software evolution. The approach builds multi-view structural descriptions of a software system directly from its source code, and uses colors to differentiate it from any other previous version. This differential approach is highly interactive allowing the user to quickly brush over many pairs of versions of the system.
Software Maintenance and Evolution: a Roadmap. K. H. Bennett. V.T Rajlich. Research Institute for Software Evolution. Department of Computer Science.
Software Evolution Visualization: Status, Challenges, and Research Directions
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Chapter 5: Software Maintenance
Software evolution generally deals with large amounts of data that originates from heterogeneous sources such as Software Configuration Management SCM repositories, Bug Tracking Systems BTS , mailing and project discussion lists. One of the key aspects of software evolution is to build theories and models that enable us to understand the past and present, as well as predict future properties related to software maintenance activities, and hence support software maintenance tasks. Software Visualization SoftVis is the field of Software Engineering SE that aims to help people to understand software through the use of visual resources Diehl, , and it can be effectively used to analyze and understand the large amount of data produced during software evolution. In general, these tools analyze the evolution of the software with respect to a set of software maintenance related questions.
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of new user requirements is the core problem for software evolution and maintenance. If changes can be anticipated at design time, they can be.
Let us first understand what software engineering stands for. The term is made of two words, software and engineering. Software is more than just a program code. A program is an executable code, which serves some computational purpose. Software is considered to be collection of executable programming code, associated libraries and documentations. Software, when made for a specific requirement is called software product. Engineering on the other hand, is all about developing products, using well-defined, scientific principles and methods.
Most of the software in regular use in businesses and organisations all over the world cannot be completely specified. It cannot be implemented, once and for all. Both the original implementation and the inevitable subsequent evolution maintenance are a continual learning experience driven, inter alia , by feedback from the results of the behaviour under execution of the software, as perceived by various stakeholders, by advances and growth in the user organisations and by adaptation to changes in the external world, both independent and as a result of installation and use of the software. Real world, termed type- E , software is essentially evolutionary in nature. The study of the processes of evolution of such software is of considerable interest, as is that of the domains that co-evolve with the software. After briefly discussing the meaning of the term evolution in the context of software, its technology, the software process and related domains, this paper describes some of the facets of the evolution phenomenon and implications to the evolution process as identified during many years of active interest in the topic. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
In fact, Agile methods stem from maintenance-like activities in and around web based technologies, where the bulk of the capability comes from frameworks and standards. Software maintenance address bug fixes and minor enhancements and software evolution focus on adaptation and migration.
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