File Name: flavor chemistry of fats and oils file.zip
Labelling requirements for fats and oils
Fats and oils are important for good health. Although fats and oils are not considered a food group, it is recommended that we consume them in small amounts.
Fats provide your body with energy and essential fatty acids and enable your body to absorb fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K. Oils are needed in the diet in small amounts because they are a major source of vitamin E, which has antioxidant properties.
Linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, and linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, are essential for health. There are many different types of dietary fats and oils. These include saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, and trans fats. All fats and oils contain a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fats, but in different amounts. In general, solid fats contain a greater proportion of saturated fats than do liquid oils.
Saturated fats are found naturally in foods such as beef, lamb, pork, and cheese. Lard pork fat , butter, and cream also contain higher amounts of saturated fat. This should be achieved by replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. However, the association of saturated fat with heart disease is controversial because the type of saturated fat is also an important consideration Chowdhury et al.
Saturated fat from dairy sources may not increase the risk of heart disease Praagman et al. A recent study also suggests that total saturated fat intake may not be associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, or stroke de Souza et al. Monounsaturated fats are found in high levels in olive oil and in oils from high-oleic-acid varieties of canola, soybean, sunflower, and safflower.
Beef tallow, lard, peanut oil, and palm oil contain moderate levels of monounsaturated fats. Soybean, canola, and corn oils, as well as cocoa butter, also contain monounsaturated fats. Although higher intakes of monounsaturated fats are encouraged for heart health, recent evidence suggests that the source of the monounsaturated fat is also important Schwingshackl and Hoffmann Olive oil may provide a greater benefit because a higher intake of olive oil is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular events e.
Polyunsaturated fats are found in higher amounts in safflower, soybean, sunflower, corn, and cottonseed oils. Walnuts, sunflower seeds, and fish are other good sources of polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated fats include omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, and sardines are good sources of long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids. Although it is recommended that you consume polyunsaturated fats instead of saturated fats USDA , most vegetable oils may not provide a strong heart health benefit Chowdhury et al.
However, eating fatty fish, which provide long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids, reduces the risk of heart disease Kromhout and stroke Chowdhury et al.
Trans fats are found naturally in small amounts within certain animal fats. Most trans fat in our diet has been from industry-produced, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Hydrogenation is the process of converting a vegetable oil into a more saturated, more solid fat. Since the s, trans fats were widely used in the manufacturing of baked goods such as biscuits, doughnuts, pastries, cakes, cookies, and pie crusts.
Trans fats raise blood cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease Chowdhury et al. Fats and oils can be categorized by whether they come from an animal or a plant vegetable source. Animal fats, such as butter and lard, are primary sources of saturated fats and tend to be solid at room temperature.
Fish oils are an exception as they are liquid at room temperature. Vegetable fats and oils usually contain more unsaturated fats than do animal fats. They tend to be liquid at room temperature unless they have been hydrogenated. Because hydrogenated fats are derived from vegetable oils, these fats are also grouped under plant sources. Examples include vegetable shortenings and stick margarines.
Although essential for health, oils are a rich source of energy. Solid fats and oils contain about 40 calories per teaspoon, making it important to limit the amount consumed to avoid unwanted weight gain. Oils are often used in cooking. Some oils are more sensitive to high temperatures than others.
The temperature at which an oil begins to break down is called the smoke point. Cooking at a temperature that is higher than the smoke point of the oil can result in undesirable flavors caused by breakdown products e.
Peanut and sesame oils have high smoke points and therefore are good choices for frying Bockisch Flaxseed and walnut oil have low smoke points and are better suited for foods that do not require heating, such as salad dressings Bockisch The exposure of oils to high temperatures, and the reuse of frying oils in particular, produces substances that may have adverse effects on health Dobarganes and Marquez-Ruiz Unrefined oils have been purified to a lesser degree than refined oils.
Unrefined oils have a more noticeable color, aroma, and flavor. These oils also have a shorter shelf life than refined oils. In general, unrefined oils are suited for foods such as salad dressings or for lower-temperature cooking, whereas most common refined oils are suited for higher-temperature cooking or frying Bockisch In general, solid fats are more stable than oils due to their higher saturated fat content and lower polyunsaturated fat content.
Saturated fats are less likely to become rancid and produce undesirable odors and flavors. Storing oils properly is important because oils may become rancid. Oils should be stored in a cool, dark place. Refrigeration after opening is recommended. Canola oil is derived from the seeds of the canola plant. Canola oil is considered a healthy oil due to its low content of saturated fat and its high content of monounsaturated fat oleic acid.
Canola oil has a mild, neutral flavor and higher smoke point, making it a flexible option for both cooking and baking. Canola oil with a very high level of monounsaturated fat oleic acid is available to the food industry for use as a frying oil.
Coconut oil is extracted from mature coconuts. Although known as an oil, at room temperature, it is a solid fat due to its very high saturated fat content. It has a sweet, nutty flavor and is used in stews, curry and fish dishes, and baked goods. It can be used as a substitute for butter for someone following a vegan diet. Coconut oil has a low to medium smoke point Bockisch Flaxseed oil is extracted from flaxseed linseed. Flaxseed oil contains a high amount of polyunsaturated fat, including linolenic acid, an essential fatty acid Mridula, Barnwal, and Singh Flaxseed oil is not suitable for frying due to its low smoke point and its lack of oxidative and thermal stability Boskisch Using flaxseed oil in salad dressings or for drizzling over pasta or rice dishes is recommended.
Olive oil is extracted from ripe olives by pressing. Most olive oil is sold in virgin unrefined form. Refined olive oil is used mainly as a food ingredient, e. Extra virgin olive oil is the highest quality olive oil. Olive oil is high in monounsaturated fat oleic acid and may help to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke Schwingshackl and Hoffmann It is a healthier option than butter or margarine, can be used in many foods such as spreads and marinades, and is great as a dip for bread or as a salad dressing.
Virgin olive oil has a lower smoke point than some other oils commonly used for high-temperature frying Bockisch , but it may be suitable for use at temperatures typically used for home cooking Li et al. Peanut oil is derived from peanuts and has a nutty flavor. It is high in monounsaturated fat oleic acid and contains vitamin E.
Due to its high smoke point, peanut oil is used for deep-frying Bockisch It is also used in stir-fries and in many Asian dishes. The majority of peanut oil consumed in the United States has been refined, that is, the protein which is responsible for the allergic reaction has been removed Crevel, Kerkhoff, and Koning Safflower oil is extracted from the seed of the safflower plant. Safflower oil is high in polyunsaturated fat linoleic acid and is suitable for use as a salad dressing and cooking oil.
Safflower oil possessing a very high level of monounsaturated fat oleic acid is available to the food industry for use as a frying oil. Sesame oil is derived from sesame seed. Sesame oil contains both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. It has a strong, nutty flavor and a high smoke point Bockisch It can be used in dressings, sauces, and stir-fries, and for searing meats.
Sesame oil is commonly used in Asian dishes. Soybean oil is derived from soybean seed and is high in linoleic acid an omega-6 fatty acid. Soybean oil has a low smoke point Bockisch , and thus it is not recommended for high-temperature frying. Soybean oil possessing a very high level of monounsaturated fat oleic acid is available to the food industry for use as a frying oil.
Sunflower oil is made from sunflower seed. Sunflower oil is high in polyunsaturated fat and is suitable for use as a salad dressing and cooking oil. Sunflower oil, which is very high in monounsaturated fat oleic acid , is available to the food industry for use as a frying oil. Walnut oil is derived from walnuts by pressing and can be consumed in its unrefined form Martinez et al.
Walnut oil contains a high amount of linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid. Walnut oil has a deep, nutty flavor, and is best used in salad dressings and for drizzling rather than as a cooking oil due to its low smoke point. Walnut oil becomes rancid quickly, so it needs to be stored in the refrigerator.
Labelling requirements for fats and oils
Fats and oils are important for good health. Although fats and oils are not considered a food group, it is recommended that we consume them in small amounts. Fats provide your body with energy and essential fatty acids and enable your body to absorb fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K. Oils are needed in the diet in small amounts because they are a major source of vitamin E, which has antioxidant properties. Linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, and linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, are essential for health.
Provincial regulations may also have labelling requirements that apply when these products are sold within that province. The labelling requirements detailed in the following section are specific to fats and oils. Refer to the Industry Labelling Tool for core labelling and voluntary claims and statements requirements that apply to all prepackaged foods. For fat and oil products that meet one of the standards prescribed in Division 9 of the FDR , the name appearing in bold-face type in the FDR is the appropriate common name of that product. Where there is no specific standard for a fat or oil in the FDR or other federal regulations, other national or international standards are referred to in order to determine an appropriate common name. For example, if there is a specific definition for a fat or oil in a Codex Standard , the Codex defined name of the fat or oil including one of its acceptable synonyms would be an acceptable common name of the food.
Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. It is also used in food preparation and flavouring not involving heat, such as salad dressings and bread dippings like bread dips, and may be called edible oil. Cooking oil is typically a liquid at room temperature, although some oils that contain saturated fat, such as coconut oil , palm oil and palm kernel oil are solid.
Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds or, less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature. Oils extracted from plants have been used since ancient times and in many cultures.
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