Gun Steel And Germs Pdf

gun steel and germs pdf

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With his book, Diamond tries to provide an answer for this question. According to Diamond, the immediate causes for the inequalities in the world today are to be found in the different stages of development between the continents as of around A. By that time, only societies of Eurasia, the landmass that constitutes Asia and Europe, and there especially the Western Europeans, possessed ocean-going ships, population-decimating germs, steel weapons, horses usable for warefare, easy spread of information by an efficient writing system and many other means that come in handy decimating, subjugating or in some cases even exterminating the originial inhabitants of other continents. Diamond calls these advantages the proximate factors of differing developments that led to the inequalities. The Spanish got there and won because they possessed the above stated proximate factors.

Human History as a Natural [email protected]@@Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

The book attempts to explain why Eurasian and North African civilizations have survived and conquered others, while arguing against the idea that Eurasian hegemony is due to any form of Eurasian intellectual , moral , or inherent genetic superiority. Diamond argues that the gaps in power and technology between human societies originate primarily in environmental differences, which are amplified by various positive feedback loops. When cultural or genetic differences have favored Eurasians for example, written language or the development among Eurasians of resistance to endemic diseases , he asserts that these advantages occurred because of the influence of geography on societies and cultures for example, by facilitating commerce and trade between different cultures and were not inherent in the Eurasian genomes. The prologue opens with an account of Diamond's conversation with Yali , a New Guinean politician. The conversation turned to the obvious differences in power and technology between Yali's people and the Europeans who dominated the land for years, differences that neither of them considered due to any genetic superiority of Europeans. Yali asked, using the local term " cargo " for inventions and manufactured goods, "Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own?

Guns, Germs, and Steel

Lesson Plans Guns, Germs and Steel provides enormous educational scope. These lesson plans are designed to accompany specific episodes in the three-part PBS series. Each lesson focuses on a specific part of Diamond's theory that the history and the development of some of the world's great civilizations and that power and prosperity is based on geography and available resources in specified areas. The lessons were designed for students studying World History, geography, economics, current events, and life sciences in grades Episode 1: Geographic Luck Grade level: This lesson explores, in depth, the theory of "geographic luck" outlined in detail in Episode One.

In Guns, Germs, and Steel , Jared Diamond outlines the theory of geographic determinism, the idea that the differences between societies and societal development arise primarily from geographical causes. The book is framed as a response to a question that Diamond heard from Yali , a charismatic New Guinean politician. In Part One of the book, Diamond sketches out the course of recent human history, emphasizing the differences between civilizations. Beginning about half a million years ago, the first human beings emerged in Africa, and eventually migrated around the rest of the world in search of game and other sources of food. About 11, years ago, certain human beings developed agriculture—a major milestone in human history.

When two strong men stand face to face,though they come from the ends of the earth. The result is an exciting and absorbing account of human history since the Pleistocene age, which culminates in a sketch of a future scientific basis for studying the history of humans that will command the same intellectual respect as current scientific studies of the history of other natural phenomena such as dinosaurs, nebulas and glaciers. This is an ambitious project, and no reviewer can comment on all of it with equal authority. My own background as an historian of European expansion and Asian response over the last two hundred years requires me to take most of the account of prehistory on trust - which is a drawback since Diamond asserts that most of the really important influences on modern history had already occurred before the birth of Christ. To a non-specialist, the account of human prehistory presented here seems plausible and well-founded - the argument is that, as homo sapiens evolved in Africa and migrated to colonise first Asia, then Europe, then Australia, and finally the Americas, so a technical progression from hunting to settled agriculture, and a societal progression from warring bands to complex sedentary civilisations took place largely determined by the environmental conditions in which different branches of the same species found themselves. Where plants and animals could easily be domesticated, as in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, settled agriculture emerged first, and was then diffused to other suitable areas. The development of surplus food-producing societies with high population densities provided humans with resistance to the diseases carried by their domesticated flocks, and facilitated other technological changes - especially the development of systems of specialised knowledge that led to advances in metallurgy, literacy and socio-economic organisation - primarily within the Eurasian supercontinent, and its outlying regions in the western Pacific and northern Africa, where the environment, and the geographical networks of migration, trade and communication, most favoured their spread.

GUNS, GERMS AND STEEL: THE FATES OF HUMAN SOCIETIES, Jared Diamond

Lays a foundation for understanding human history. McNeill, New York Review of Books book, Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern world. Societies that had had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter-gatherer stage, and then developed religion --as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war --and adventured on sea and land to conquer and decimate preliterate cultures.

Technology and Culture By Jared Diamond. New York: W.

Voiceover: Modern history has been shaped by conquest — the conquest of the world by Europeans. The Conquistadors led the way. A few hundred men came to the New World and decimated the native population. The secret of their success?

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 Самообразование за тюремной решеткой. Хейл засмеялся. - Нет, серьезно, Сьюзан, тебе никогда не приходило в голову, что это все-таки возможно и что Танкадо действительно придумал невзламываемый алгоритм. Этот разговор был ей неприятен. - Ну, мы не сумели этого сделать. - А вдруг Танкадо умнее. - Может .

Она была блистательна и прекрасна, равной ей он не мог себе даже представить. Его жена долго терпела, но, увидев Сьюзан, потеряла последнюю надежду. Бев Стратмор никогда его ни в чем не обвиняла. Она превозмогала боль сколько могла, но ее силы иссякли. Она сказала ему, что их брак исчерпал себя, что она не собирается до конца дней жить в тени другой женщины.

Guns, Germs, and Steel

Стратмор пожал плечами: - Стандартный коммерческий алгоритм. Насколько я могу судить, пароль из шестидесяти четырех знаков. В полном недоумении Сьюзан посмотрела в окно кабинета на видневшийся внизу ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Она точно знала, что на такой пароль уходит меньше десяти минут. - Должно ведь быть какое-то объяснение.

Этой своей мнимой перепиской Танкадо мог убедить Стратмора в чем угодно. Она вспомнила свою первую реакцию на рассказ Стратмора об алгоритме, не поддающемся взлому. Сьюзан была убеждена, что это невозможно.

За названием каждого файла следовали четыре цифры - код команды добро, данной программой Сквозь строй. Последний файл в списке таким кодом не сопровождался, вместо этого следовала запись: ФИЛЬТР ОТКЛЮЧЕН ВРУЧНУЮ. Господи Иисусе! - подумал Бринкерхофф.  - Мидж снова оказалась права.

Я думал, что он похоронен в Доминиканской Республике. - Да нет же, черт возьми. И кто только распустил этот слух. Тело Колумба покоится здесь, в Испании.

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