Stuart Hall Encoding And Decoding In The Television Discourse Pdf

stuart hall encoding and decoding in the television discourse pdf

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In psychology, encoding is the ability to convert information into a different but retrievable form, usually in the memory; it is unsurprisingly critical to game plans or performance strategies. In cultural and media studies, encoding is the way in which texts are put together, and decoding the way in which these can be disassembled for their meaning; the approach has been widely used in analyses of sport media and the juxtaposition of the visual and the printed word in those media. This emphasis on the structuring of the media form highlighted the role of the media in constructing sport discourse and narratives, not merely relaying the action from the site of the live action to the viewer.

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Titled 'Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse', Hall's essay offers a theoretical approach of how media messages are produced, disseminated, and interpreted. When you decode a message, you extract the meaning of that message in ways that make sense to you. Decoding has both verbal and non-verbal forms of communication: Decoding behavior without using words means observing body language and its associated emotions. Sometimes when someone is trying to get a message across to someone, the message can be interpreted differently from person to person.

Decoding is all about the understanding of what someone already knows, based on the information given throughout the message being received. Whether there is a large audience or exchanging a message to one person, decoding is the process of obtaining, absorbing, understanding, and sometimes using the information that was given throughout a verbal or non-verbal message.

For example, since advertisements can have multiple layers of meaning, they can be decoded in various ways and can mean something different to different people. The encoding of a message is the production of the message.

It is a system of coded meanings, and in order to create that, the sender needs to understand how the world is comprehensible to the members of the audience. In the process of encoding, the sender i. It is very important how a message will be encoded; it partially depends on the purpose of the message. The decoding of a message is how an audience member is able to understand, and interpret the message. It is a process of interpretation and translation of coded information into a comprehensible form.

The audience is trying to reconstruct the idea by giving meanings to symbols and by interpreting the message as a whole. Effective communication is accomplished only when the message is received and understood in the intended way. However, it is still possible for the message recipient to understand a message in a completely different way from what the encoder was trying to convey.

This is when "distortions" or "misunderstanding" arise from "lack of equivalence" between the two sides in communicative exchange. In his essay, [1] Hall compares two models of communication. The author proposes the idea that there is more to the process of communication and, thus, advances a four-stage model of communication that takes into account the production, circulation, use and reproduction of media messages.

In contrast to the traditional linear approach of the sender and receiver, he perceives each of these steps as both autonomous and interdependent. Hall further explains that the meanings and messages in the discursive "production" are organized through the operation of codes within the rules of "language.

These four stages are: [1]. Since discursive form plays such an important role in a communicative process, Hall suggests that " encoding " and " decoding " are "determinate moments. Rather, he states that events can only be transported to the audience in the audio-visual forms of televisual discourse that is, the message goes to processes of production and distribution. This is when the other determinant moment begins — decoding, or interpretation of the images and messages through a wider social, cultural, and political cognitive spectrum that is, the processes of consumption and reproduction.

This model has been adopted and applied by many media theorists since Hall developed it. Hall's work has been central to the development of cultural studies, and continues today because of the importance of decoding. Cultural Studies started challenging the mainstream media effects models in The main focus was how audience members make meanings and understand reality through their use of cultural symbols in both print and visual media.

Theorists such as Dick Hebdige , David Morley, and Janice Radway have been heavily influenced by Hall, and applied his theory to help develop their own:. Hebdige was a British cultural and critic scholar who studied under Hall at the Birmingham School of Cultural Studies.

His model builds from Hall's idea of Subculture. He is most known for his influential book Subculture: The Meaning of Style , where he argues that younger generations are challenging dominant ideologies by developing distinct styles and practices that manifest their separate identity, and subversions.

His exploration of the punk subculture outlines the potential causes and influences of the punk movement, especially for the youth.

His extensive study on subcultures and its resistance against mainstream society showed that the punk subculture used commodification to differentiate themselves from, or become accepted by, the mainstream.

Hebdige believed that punk was incorporated into the media in an attempt to categorize it within society, and he critically examines this issue by applying Hall's theory of encoding and decoding. David Morley is a sociologist who studies the sociology of the television audience.

Known for being a key researcher in conducting The Nationwide Project in the late s, Morley took this popular news program that aired daily on BBC. It reported on national news from London and the major events of the day, and was broadcast throughout the UK. This study focused on the ways this program addressed the audience member and the ideological themes it presented. Morley then took it a step further and conducted a qualitative research that included individuals with varying social backgrounds.

This was where Hall's research came into play. Janice Radway , an American literary and cultural studies scholar, conducted a study on women in terms of romance reading. In her book Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy and Popular Literature , Radway studied a group of midwestern women that were fans of romance novels.

She argued that this cultural activity functioned as personal time for women that didn't typically have any personal time to themselves. Studying how specific individuals receive and interpret messages based on their backgrounds was something that played a huge role in Radway's study on women. Communication theorist Stuart Hall argues that there are three positions that people may take upon decoding a television message. He argues three different positions because "decodings do not follow inevitably from encodings".

This lays the foundation for Hall's hypothetical positions—he needs multiple positions because there are multiple interpretations that could occur. These positions are known as the dominant-hegemonic position, the negotiated position, and the oppositional position. The first position that he discusses is the dominant-hegemonic code. This code or position is one where the consumer takes the actual meaning directly, and decodes it exactly the way it was encoded. For instance, political and military elites primarily generated the politics of Northern Ireland and the Chilean Coup.

These elites created the "hegemonic interpretations" [5] Because these ideas were hegemonic interpretations, they became dominant. Hall demonstrates that if a viewer of a newscast on such topics decoded the message "in terms of the reference code in which it has been encoded" that the viewer would be "operating inside the dominant code" [5] Thus, the dominant code involves taking the connotative meaning of a message in the exact way a sender intended a message to be interpreted decoded.

Under this framework, the consumer is located within the dominant point of view, and is fully sharing the texts codes and accepts and reproduces the intended meaning. Here, there is barely any misunderstanding because both the sender and receiver have the same cultural biases. And there is no misunderstanding between sender and receiver for they have similar cultural biases. Castleberry argues that there is a dominant-hegemonic "position held by the entertainment industry that illegal drug side-effects cause less damage than perceived".

If this is the dominant code and television shows like Breaking Bad support such perceptions, then they are operating within the dominant code.

Another hypothetical position is the negotiated position. This position is a mixture of accepting and rejecting elements. Readers are acknowledging the dominant message, but are not willing to completely accept the message the way the encoder intended.

The reader to a certain extent, shares the text's code and generally accepts the preferred meaning, but is simultaneously resisting and modifying it in a way which reflects their own experiences and interests. Hall explains this when he states "decoding within the negotiated version contains a mixture of adaptive and oppositional elements: it acknowledges the legitimacy of the hegemonic definitions to make the grand significations abstract , while, at a more restricted, situational situated level, it makes its own ground rules- it operates with exceptions to the rule".

Hall provides an example involving an Industrial Relations Bill. In his example, he shows how a factory worker may recognize and agree with the dominant position that a wage freeze is beneficial. However, while the worker may recognize that the wage freeze is needed, they may not be willing to partake in a wage freeze since it will directly affect them rather than others [5] His example demonstrates that people may negotiate a code to work around their own beliefs and self-interests.

This code is very much based on context. Once more, Castleberry demonstrates the negotiated code at play in a modern-day television show. In Breaking Bad , protagonist Walter White 's wife Skylar leaves him after she discovers that he is a methamphetamine cook, and many viewers had negotiated "an acceptance of Walter's sins, while communicating negative discourse concerning Skylar".

This negative discourse, according to actress Anna Gunn , who portrayed Skylar, was because her character did not fit what was expected of a wife.

This expectation could be seen as a dominant code. In addition, Walter's actions were against the dominant code. Because of these conflicting dominant codes, Castleberry implies that many viewers negotiated their own code where Walter's actions were acceptable due to Skylar's role as a non-traditional wife. Lastly, there is the oppositional position or code. Hall summarizes that a viewer can understand the literal denotative and connotative meanings of a message while decoding a message in a globally contrary way.

This means that a person recognizes that their meaning is not the dominant meaning, or what was intended, but alters the message in their mind to fit an "alternative framework of reference" [5] It is more like that receiver decode a different message. Thus, readers' or viewers social situation has placed them in a directly oppositional relationship to the dominant code, and although they understand the intended meaning they do not share the text's code and end up rejecting it.

Again, this code is based very much on experiences. One's personal experiences will likely influence them to take on the oppositional position when they encode hegemonic positions. Highly political discourse emerges from these oppositional codes as "events which are normally signified and decoded in a negotiated way begin to be given an oppositional reading.

The three positions of decoding proposed by Hall are based on the audience's conscious awareness of the intended meanings encoded into the text.

In other words, these positions — agreement, negotiation, opposition — are in relation to the intended meaning. However, polysemy means that the audience may create new meanings out of the text. The audience's perceived meanings may not be intended by the producers.

TV viewers may take an aesthetically critical stance towards the text, commenting on the paradigmatic and syntagmatic aspects of textual production. Hall's model does not differentiate the various positions media producers may take in relation to the dominant ideology.

Instead, it assumes that encoding always takes place within a dominant-hegemonic position. Further is the explanation of one of the alternative models suggested by Ross, [12] which is a more complex typology consisting of nine combinations of encoding and decoding positions Figure 1 and Figure 2. The reasons why the original model needs to be revisited and the alternative model description to follow. In line with previous scholarship criticizing Hall's model, Ross [12] and Morley [13] argue that the model has some unsolved problems.

First, Morley mentions that in the decoding stage there is a need to distinguish comprehension of the text and its evaluation. Comprehension here refers to the reader's understanding of the text in the basic sense and the sender's intention, and to possible readers interpretations of the text borrowed from Schroder [14].

Evaluation is how readers relate the text to the ideological position also borrowed from Schroder [14]. For example, imagine that an oppositional TV channel produced a news story about some flaws in the ObamaCare. According to the original model, a reader can fully share the text's code and accept its meaning, or reject it and bring an alternative frame of it. That leads to the final problem of the original model -- assuming that all the media encode texts within the dominant ideology and thus suggesting that media is homogeneous in nature.

In order to address these problems, Ross [12] suggests two steps in modifying the original model.

Encoding and Decoding in the television discourse

Palabra Clave , vol. DOI: Abstract : In this age of globalization, scholars in cultural studies and translation studies would seem to have a lot to talk about. It is strange, then, that they talk so little with each other. This article seeks to bridge that gap by asking what a theory of translation would look like if it were grounded in the field of cultural studies. It proposes three axioms: 1 to use a sign is to transform it; 2 to transform a sign is to translate it; and 3 communication is translation. Its argument is performative rather than simply expository: it is structured as an example of the phenomenon it describes.

From S. Hall, 'EncodinglDecoding', Ch. 10 in Stuart Hall, Dorothy Hobson, exrraq from S. Hall, 'Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse', cccs.

Encoding/decoding model of communication

The famous British scholar, Stuart Hall, who was the immigrant from Jamaica had ever analyzed, criticized and proposed the solutions for social problems in ethnic conflict, ethnic minorities in Europe and other countries that implemented multiculturalism policies in s. But Hall's proposal did not get attention and be adopted as a policy while the leaders of countries such as Germany, England, had come out to declare the failure to implement cultural diversity policies. The researcher found that in the new ethnic concepts new ethnicities in , an analysis showed the struggle of black people, immigrants and minorities who used the essential identity of ethnicities to adjust relationships from being oppressed in England and the United States.

This would be to think of the process as a 'complex structure in dominance', sustained tfuough the articulation of conlected practices, each of which, however, retains its distinctiveness and has its own specific modality, its own forms ald conditions of existence. The 'obiect' of these practices is meanings and messages in the form of sign-vehicles of a specific icind organized, like any form of commurf- cation or language, through the operation of codes within the syntag- matic chain of a discourse. It is in this discursive form that the circulation of the 'product' takes place. The process thus requires, at the production end, its material instruments - its 'means' - as well as its own sets of social production relations - the organization and combination of practices within media apparatuses. But it is in the discursizte form that the circulation of the product takes place, as well as its distribution to different audiences.

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Titled 'Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse', Hall's essay offers a theoretical approach of how media messages are produced, disseminated, and interpreted. When you decode a message, you extract the meaning of that message in ways that make sense to you. Decoding has both verbal and non-verbal forms of communication: Decoding behavior without using words means observing body language and its associated emotions.

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Ролдан сразу понял. Он хорошо запомнил это обрюзгшее лицо. Человек, к которому он направил Росио. Странно, подумал он, что сегодня вечером уже второй человек интересуется этим немцем.

Глаза ее были полны слез. - Сьюзан. По ее щеке скатилась слеза. - Что с тобой? - в голосе Стратмора слышалась мольба. Лужа крови под телом Хейла расползалась на ковре, напоминая пятно разлитой нефти.

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 - Уже обо всем пронюхали.




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