Hereditary Bone And Joint Diseases In The Dog Pdf

hereditary bone and joint diseases in the dog pdf

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Canine parvovirus CPV is a highly contagious viral disease of dogs that commonly causes acute gastrointestinal illness in puppies. The disease most often strikes in pups between six and 20 weeks old, but older animals are sometimes also affected. A rare variant of the disease may be seen in very young neonatal puppies is myocarditis an inflammation of the heart muscle.

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Most radiographic signs of joint disease are nonspecific Box Also, animals with progressive joint disease may have different signs when examined during different phases of the disease. Sound knowledge of joint pathophysiologic characteristics is as important in the diagnosis of joint disease as the ability to make and interpret radiographs of joints.

Radiographic signs of joint disease A compared with a normal joint B. Increased synovial mass 1 , perichondral osteophyte 2 , and enthesophyte formation 3 are common radiographic changes. Erosion of the subchondral bone surface 4 and joint mice 5 are less common, whereas increased subchondral bone opacity 6 and subchondral bone cyst formation 7 are signs of chronic joint disease.

Any moderate increase in joint capsular or intracapsular soft tissue volume may be detected on good-quality radiographs. The joint cartilage, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and joint capsule cannot be differentiated, because they are all of soft tissue opacity and therefore silhouette with one another. In most joints, an increase in synovial mass appears as periarticular soft tissue swelling, which is identified radiographically by the increased opacity of affected soft tissues.

In the stifle, the infrapatellar fat pad sign may be used to evaluate synovial volume. The normal infrapatellar fat pad is identified readily on lateral stifle radiographs as a relatively radiolucent triangular region immediately caudal to the patellar ligament Fig.

When stifle synovial mass increases, either from increased synovial fluid or soft tissue, a combination of inflammatory response and effusion causes the shape of the fat pad to be altered and the fat pad to become less visible. Changes in the shape of the infrapatellar fat pad, located between the arrows, is a sensitive indicator of absence A or presence B of increased synovial volume in the stifle. The joint space is the region of soft tissue opacity between subchondral bone surfaces of opposing weight-bearing surfaces of a joint.

This space consists of two layers of articular cartilage separated by a microfilm of synovial fluid. In early joint disease, synovial effusion may cause widening of the joint space. As joint disease progresses, attrition of articular cartilage results in decreased width of the joint space Fig. These changes in joint space width are rarely diagnosed radiographically as a result of small animal patients not being radiographed while bearing weight and also because of inconsistency between the orientation of the primary x-ray beam and joint space.

Chronic malalignment of the stifle has resulted in narrowing of the lateral aspect of the femorotibial joint, likely because of degeneration of the lateral meniscus. The secondary altered loading of the lateral tibial condyle has resulted in secondary sclerosis black arrows. Subchondral bone is separated from the synovial fluid by an intact layer of articular cartilage. Any disease that changes the character of synovial fluid, causing the articular cartilage to erode, potentially threatens the integrity of subchondral bone.

In inflammatory joint disease, inflammatory exudates may cause pronounced subchondral bone loss. Infectious arthritis may extend into subchondral bone. Subchondral bone loss appears initially as a ragged margin of subchondral bone, but it may extend to cause marked destruction of bone Fig. When bone loss affects smaller carpal and tarsal bones, these small cuboidal bones may be dramatically reduced in mass.

Periarticular soft tissue swelling white arrows and subchondral bone erosion white arrowheads in the carpus of a dog with an erosive polyarthropathy. In benign joint disease, such as degenerative joint disease, subchondral bone may be more opaque than normal because of stress remodeling see Fig. Articular cartilage merges with the synovial membrane at the chondrosynovial junction.

This highly vascular membrane is sensitive to inflammation. Synovial inflammation, or hypertrophy, may result in erosion of bone adjacent to the synovium. Early inflammation causes adjacent bone to appear ragged and spiculated. Longstanding or severe synovial inflammation or hypertrophy may cause pronounced bone erosion Fig. Advanced coxofemoral degenerative joint disease. The femoral neck is thickened, the femoral head is misshapen, and there are numerous osteophytes black arrows.

There are multiple small and large radiolucencies white arrows in the femoral neck because of invasion of bone by hyperplastic synovium. Mineralization may occur within the joint capsule, synovial membrane, or synovial fluid as a consequence of chronic joint disease. Occasionally, large accumulations of articular or periarticular calcific material may be observed. Large osteochondromas have been reported within the joints of dogs and cats, and intrameniscal calcification and ossification have been observed in the stifle joints of cats.

Small, well-defined articular and periarticular calcific opacities are occasionally observed in dogs and cats. Such mineralized fragments are sometimes called joint mice. Not all such fragments are free within the joint, although they may appear free radiographically; fragments may become adhered to the joint capsule.

Articular calcified bodies usually fall into three fairly distinct categories: 1 avulsed fragments of articular or periarticular bone, 2 osteochondral components of a disintegrating joint surface, or 3 small synovial osteochondromas Table When the normal spatial relation between components of a joint is disturbed, some type of displacement has occurred. A good example is a luxated coxofemoral joint. Other less obvious incongruities, such as the cranial drawer sign in a stifle with a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament and minor elbow incongruity in dogs with elbow dysplasia, can be difficult to see radiographically.

The proposed pathogenesis of osteophyte formation is that abnormal joint cartilage loading leads to cartilage wear, fibrillation, and loss of cartilage. The products of cartilage degradation mediate synovial hyperplasia and subsequent development of osteophytes.

They are seen as bony outgrowths at the periphery of articular cartilage. They occur as a component of degenerative joint disease see Fig. An enthesis is the point of insertion of a tendon, ligament, joint capsule, or fascia to bone. During embryogenesis ligaments and tendons are attached to cartilage, but subsequent metaplasia of fibroblasts at their attachment site results in formation of fibrocartilage.

This extends into the tendon or ligament, and endochondral ossification proceeds within the remaining cartilage. Enthesitis is inflammation of the site of tendon or ligament attachment to bone. An enthesophyte is a bony spondylopathy that develops at an enthesis Fig. A large enthesophyte arising from the enthesis of origin of the gastrocnemius muscle arrows. Because enthesophytes, osteophytes, and ankylosing spondylopathy appear radiographically similar, confusion in terminology often occurs when referring to these structures on a radiograph.

To separate osteophytes around or within joints from enthesophytes, knowing the location of the common entheses is useful information Fig. In complex joints such as the carpus and tarsus, a large number of intraarticular ligaments are present. Every diarthrodial joint has a joint capsule, and intraarticular and periarticular ligaments and joint capsules insert onto bone at their respective entheses. New bone formations arising in or around joints where no known entheses are present are usually referred to as osteophytes.

In the scapulohumeral joint the intraarticular tendon of origin of biceps brachii muscle arises from its enthesis black arrowheads on the scapular tuberosity. Other entheses around the shoulder are related to the lateral A and medial B glenohumeral ligaments and the joint capsule and tendons of insertion of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis muscles not depicted.

Entheses around the carpus. In addition to the many intraarticular ligaments and the joint capsule not depicted are periarticular entheses of extensor carpi radialis and extensor carpi ulnaris A , abductor pollicis longus B , flexor carpi ulnaris C , the check ligaments of the accessory carpal bone D , and flexor carpi radialis E.

The stifle. Entheses of origin of the long digital extensor A , popliteus B , lateral collateral ligament C , gastrocnemius D , and medial collateral ligament E. Not depicted are the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments. Spontaneous or induced gas diffusion into a joint, termed the vacuum phenomenon, has been reported in both horses and dogs. The presence of intraarticular gas is identified more easily during computed tomography CT examinations than during radiography.

This may occur naturally or be induced by applying traction to a joint. Vacuum phenomenon has many causes in dogs and cats Box Interestingly, gas diffusion was not a feature of normal non-OCD contralateral joints of dogs in this series. Intraarticular gas diffuses slowly out of a joint over several hours after normal intraarticular pressure is reestablished. Intraarticular gas is present in the shoulder joint of a dog with osteochondrosis; note the flattening of the caudal aspect of the humeral head.

The gas itself is not very conspicuous, but its presence has reduced the opacity of the joint space leading to visualization of the articular cartilage black arrows If intraarticular gas were not present, the cartilage would not be visible. Sesamoid bones are located adjacent to the elbow, stifle, tarsus, and the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints. If sesamoid bones are not identified on a radiograph, they may be absent or be cartilaginous at the time of radiography.

Sesamoid bones are identified by their size, shape, and location Fig. Occasionally, displaced sesamoids are regarded as a sign of muscular or tendinous injury. Although this may be true and has been reported in conjunction with ruptured cruciate ligaments and trauma of the tendon of origin of the popliteus and gastrocnemius, 11 variations in sesamoid location may also occur in the absence of a pathologic condition.

A and B, The elbow sesamoid, in the tendon of origin of the supinator, is seen adjacent to the craniolateral surface of the head of the radius arrows. The carpal sesamoid is located in the tendon of the abductor pollicis longus on the medial side of the carpus at the level of the intercarpal articulation enhanced box, large arrow.

The tendon inserts onto the proximal end of the first digit. The metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal sesamoids are paired white arrowheads on the palmar plantar surface and single on the dorsal surface white and black arrows. They are numbered from medial to lateral. The iliopubic sesamoids are occasionally seen cranial to the pubic eminence on lateral radiographs of the pelvis of large dogs white arrows.

The patella P is easily identified on the cranial aspect of the femoral condyle. The paired fabellae white arrowheads are located on the caudal aspect of the femoral condyle, where they lie adjacent to the medial and lateral condyles near the origin of the gastrocnemius. The popliteal sesamoid white arrows is located caudolaterally, adjacent to the head of the tibia. The lateral tarsometatarsal sesamoid white arrows and the medially located intraarticular tarsometatarsal sesamoid black arrows are inconsistently present in dogs and can be difficult to locate.

On the lateral image right panel one can be seen white arrowheads. Paired palmar sesamoid bones located in the tendons of insertion of the interosseous muscles see Fig. Patella tendon of insertion of the quadriceps femoris see Fig. Lateral plantar tarsometatarsal sesamoid bone see Fig. Paired plantar sesamoid bones see Fig. Meniscal mineralization is a common finding in domestic cats Fig.

In examining stifle radiographs of cats, 46 had meniscal mineralization detected in one or both stifles. Thirty-four of 57 cadaver stifles had meniscal mineralization, which was always located in the cranial horn of the medial meniscus.

2011, Number 4

Some joint diseases, such as arthritis, affect the joint membranes themselves. Other types of joint conditions affect the tendons, cartilage, bursae, and fluid within the joint. Joint disorders may be congenital present at birth or may be the result of injury to the joint, degeneration deterioration with loss of function , abnormal development, immune-related conditions, cancers, or infections. This deterioration of the top of the femur femoral head seen in young miniature and small breeds of dogs is characterized by a lack of blood supply and destruction of blood vessels of the bone. It is also known by the technical term, aseptic necrosis of the femoral head.

Donald McGavin, William W. Carlton, James F. Radostits, C. Gay, D. Blood, K. Yolande Bishop, ed.

Other Joint Disorders in Dogs

Many diseases of the skeletal system are congenital in the sense that they become evident at or soon after birth. This does not imply that they all are genetically determined. Most are caused by factors operating during pregnancy, delivery, or early infancy. Intrauterine injuries of the skeletal system were dramatically seen in children born of some women who received thalidomide , a drug previously used to treat morning sickness, during the initial three months of pregnancy. These children suffered severe extremity defects such as shortened or malformed limbs phocomelia.

Most radiographic signs of joint disease are nonspecific Box Also, animals with progressive joint disease may have different signs when examined during different phases of the disease. Sound knowledge of joint pathophysiologic characteristics is as important in the diagnosis of joint disease as the ability to make and interpret radiographs of joints.

Hereditary Bone and Joint Diseases in the Dog: Osteochondroses, Hip ...

Key words:. Osteochondritis osteochondrosis dissecans: a review and new MRI classification. Eur Radiol ; Diseases of the nervous and locomotor system.

Metrics details. Hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis continue to be prevalent problems in veterinary and human medicine. Canine hip dysplasia is particularly problematic as it massively affects several large-sized breeds and can cause a severe impairment of the quality of life.

Shoulder osteochondrosis is a disturbance of endochondral ossification in the humeral head cartilage, which may lead to a clinical problem, the appropriate term for which is "osteochondritis dissecans. The increase of epiphyseal volume, in growing animals, occurs through endochondral ossification within the epiphyseal cartilage. Multiplication of cartilage cells within a germinal layer leads to thickening of the growth cartilage towards the metaphysis. As the cartilage grows, the cells left in the newly formed matrix undergo a maturation, or degenerative process, while the ground substance becomes mineralised. Capillary buds then invade the mineralised cartilage from the metaphysis, following a front of chondroclasts that remove the cartilage.

Hereditary Bone and Joint Disease in the Dog Joe Morgan, Alinda Wind & Autumn DavidsonPublished by Manson Publishing, Hardback.

Hip dysplasia (canine)


Katharina K.


Cerdeira J.



In dogs, hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip socket that, in its more severe form, can eventually cause lameness and arthritis of the joints.

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