File Name: various types of political ideologies and the democratic ideal .zip
Contemporary British Politics pp Cite as. T he study of politics from at least the time of Plato onwards has attached particular importance to political ideas. Ideas, it is suggested, can change the world.
- Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal / Edition 10
- Political Ideologies and Democratic Ideal - Ball and Dagger.docx
- Political Ideologies and Styles
Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal / Edition 10
In this unit, we will be looking at the ideologies of the state and its citizens. Some of these ideologies reflect more on the state, others on the people and their political parties, and others overlap the two.
Some of these ideologies have only come into existence in the twentieth century, while others go back hundreds of years. Some ideologies mean one thing in the United States and something different from the rest of the world, such as for liberalism.
The following subunit covers many of the traditional and best-known ideologies, however, the list is not all-inclusive. Historically, the political spectrum was seen as one-dimensional, left and right, representing the government's position on the economic and defense issues of the day. At the end of this unit, you will be able to take a test and see where your political views fall on the multidimensional political spectrum.
Read this chapter through the "Other Forms of Government: Monarchy". When you finish, you should be familiar with the concepts of d irect democracy, i nitiatives, r eferenda, r epublics, and i lliberal democracies.
Watch both parts of this lecture on democracy and majority rule. Shapiro's focus in these two lectures is majority rule, democratic competition, and representation. Providing both historical and contemporary examples, Shapiro shows how majority rule lends legitimacy to collective decisions. He also explores concerns about the tyranny of the majority. True democracies require both majority rule, but also the protection of minority rights.
If you recall, to "study politics is to "study power — who gets what, and how". Since politics is about the distribution of resources in a society, studying economics is critical. Some of the most contentious political questions involve questions of economics: How much should wealthy citizens pay in taxes? How much should lower-income citizens pay in taxes? Where should those tax dollars go?
What is fair, and what is not fair? In this chapter, will read about "democratic capitalism", which is the United States' answer to some of these questions of how resources should be distributed in a society. Pay close attention to the "three pillars" of a democratic capitalist political-economic system. As the name implies, "democratic socialism" relies on a democratic political system and a socialist economic system. Generally speaking, democratic capitalism values economic freedom more than economic equality.
Proponents of democratic socialism would be more likely to highly value economic equality than would proponents of democratic capitalism. Which do you think is more important in political-economic systems, freedom or equality? Do you think freedom and equality are mutually exclusive economic goals? In the previous article, you explored the definition of democratic socialism. This audio clip gives you the opportunity to hear how the term "democratic socialism" can be applied to contemporary politics.
The speaker describes the difference between socialists and communists. Socialists, he describes, were those who wanted to work within the system, making it better, while communists were determined to have only state enterprise and economic planning.
Then, there was a third group of socialists who wanted a socialism that was closely intertwined with and "married" to a real democracy. Listen closely to how the speaker describes what democratic socialism looks like in practice. What do you think is the source of legitimacy for monarchies, constitutional monarchies, authoritarian governments, and totalitarian governments?
According to this article, a survey of experts classified 53 states as authoritarian, 37 as hybrid, 53 as flawed democracies, and only 25 as full democracies. Why do you think democracy is so hard to achieve and sustain? In capitalism, private property rights are fundamental and freedom in economic interactions is paramount.
Marxism and communism offer an alternative explanation of socioeconomic structures that focuses more on the exploitative potential of capitalism. How else is Marx's view of social-economic relations different than the capitalist view? These sections expand upon the ideas introduced in the previous reading. Be sure you click "next" twice so that you read all of the relevant sections.
In particular, these sections describe the economic features of a communist system, which include collective state ownership of capital, and state control over inputs, outputs, labor, and prices. In theory, communism provides some benefits, such as equality and job security for all. However, in practice, communist economic systems have been shown to be quite inefficient. Do you think it will ever be possible to create a well-functioning communist state?
Read this definition of fascism and keep it in mind as you read more about Mussolini's fascist state and the Nazi state. Merriman describes the economic, political, and social situation in Germany that allowed Hitler and Nazism to take root.
Fascism and National Socialism are extreme forms of state ideology. According to Merriman:. What they want is ultra-nationalism. What they want is a totalitarian state and the destruction of parliamentary rule. Why do you think fascists and other authoritarian governments tend to focus more on their enemies rather than their goals? Read the first section under "National Socialism".
In its intense nationalism, mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, National Socialism shared many elements with Italian fascism. However, Nazism was far more extreme both in its ideas and in its practice. In almost every respect, it was an anti-intellectual and a theoretical movement, emphasizing the will of the charismatic dictator as the sole source of inspiration of a people and a nation, as well as a vision of the "annihilation of all enemies of the Aryan race".
Think back to the original definition of fascism. What parts of that definition apply to the Nazi state? Read the introductory paragraphs and the section under "Definitions". Islamism a modern ideology. Whereas Islam is a religion that is in a class with Judaism and Christianity, Islamism is a political response to ideologies that emerged in the modern West: communism, socialism, or capitalism.
Watch this panel discussion from the World Economic Forum. At the beginning of the panel discussion, the moderator asks the panel participants to consider the question of what political Islam is.
At , one participant explains that Islam has always been actively integrated with politics, with morality, with "everything". He states that "a Muslim person has a responsibility to be active in every part of his life, including political matters". To him, "political Islam" occurs when fundamentalist Muslims are fighting to impose their political views on others, even to non-Muslims. Many religions seek to influence politics, so what do you think separates Islamism from other types of religious expression?
This section describes the ideology of liberalism. Liberalism values individual freedom, open economic systems, and democracy. As you read this section, consider how the ideology of liberalism compares to socialism or fascism. What sets liberalism apart? Also, pay close attention to the distinction between classical liberalism and modern liberalism.
How does this compare to the roles of government as outlined by the ideologies we've read about so far? Read this section. Democratic and Republican Parties both adhere to a derivation of classical liberal ideals. The words "liberal" and "conservative" have come to represent a different set of values in modern times.
American, or modern, liberalism equates with the "left of center", or the Democratic Party in the United States. Modern liberals advocate for more government spending and oversight, stronger welfare programs, and liberal social policies. While classical liberalism emphasizes the sovereignty of the individual, classical conservatism emphasizes the importance of continuity for the preservation of order.
Classical liberalism's end goal is freedom, while classical conservatism's end goal is stability. Classical conservatives also seek to maintain a society based on traditional values and the existing social hierarchy, since change can cause instability.
Read the section on American Conservatism. As mentioned, modern or American conservatism can actually more accurately be characterized as a form of classical liberalism. Modern or American conservatives are represented by the "right of center", or Republican Party.
American conservatives seek less government involvement in the economy and are more interested in preserving individual freedom than actively promoting economic equality. Please read the introductory paragraphs, as well as the sections titled, "History" and "Societal Impact".
According to this article, feminism can be defined as "the acting, speaking, writing, and advocating on behalf of women's issues and right sand identifying injustice to females in the social status quo". As you've seen, ideologies discuss human nature, the role of government, freedom versus equality, and other critical issues. As an ideology, feminism seeks to introduce gender into these conversations.
This article outlines the primary feminist movements in the United States. Pay close attention to the description of liberal feminism, socialist feminism, radical feminism, and multicultural feminism. How do these feminist-based ideological approaches suggest we should structure government and political life? Read the introductory paragraphs and the sections entitled "Definitions" and "Environmental Movement". According to this article, environmentalism "is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment".
To environmentalists, one of the primary goals of government should be to encourage development that is sustainable. How does this compare to the goals of modern liberals, conservatives, or feminists? This article compares environmentalism in the US to environmentalism in Europe. Like environmentalism, most ideologies take different forms in different countries. In this article, pay close attention to the continued mention of sustainability, which is a critical feature of environmentalism.
Political Ideologies and Democratic Ideal - Ball and Dagger.docx
Ideology , a form of social or political philosophy in which practical elements are as prominent as theoretical ones. It is a system of ideas that aspires both to explain the world and to change it. This article describes the nature, history , and significance of ideologies in terms of the philosophical, political, and international contexts in which they have arisen. Particular categories of ideology are discussed in the articles socialism , communism , anarchism , fascism , nationalism , liberalism , and conservatism. The fact is, however, that he owed rather more to the English philosopher Francis Bacon , whom he revered no less than did the earlier French philosophers of the Enlightenment.
Political Ideologies and Styles
Is Marxism dead? Are we hurtling towards environmental crisis? Is anarchism utopian? This research-led multi-disciplinary module aims to furnish students with an in-depth understanding of the various strands of ideological thinking to have impacted on political history since the 18th century. It examines the nature of ideology and the historical circumstances which gave rise to this mode of thought; it explores the evolution and impact of the major ideological traditions, such as liberalism, nationalism, socialism, fascism etc.
Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal analyzes and compares political ideologies to help readers understand individual ideologies, and the concept of ideology, from a political science perspective.
- Надо думать. Есть различие, которое мы все время упускаем. Что-то очень простое. - Ой, дорогие мои… - сказала вдруг Соши. Она открыла на экране второе окно и просматривала остальную часть документов Лаборатории вне закона. - В чем дело? - спросил Фонтейн. - Вы что-то нашли.
Вскоре после не получившего огласки, но причинившего колоссальный ущерб государственной безопасности проникновения в базы данных Военно-морского флота стало абсолютно очевидно, что секретная информация, хранящаяся на компьютерах, подключенных к Интернету, перестала быть тайной. По предложению министерства обороны президент подписал тайное распоряжение о создании новой, абсолютно безопасной правительственной сети, которая должна была заменить скомпрометировавший себя Интернет и стать средством связи разведывательных агентств США. Чтобы предотвратить дальнейшее проникновение в государственные секреты, вся наиболее важная информация была сосредоточена в одном в высшей степени безопасном месте - новой базе данных АНБ, своего рода форте Нокс разведывательной информации страны. Без преувеличения многие миллионы наиболее секретных фотографий, магнитофонных записей, документов и видеофильмов были записаны на электронные носители и отправлены в колоссальное по размерам хранилище, а твердые копии этих материалов были уничтожены. Базу данных защищали трехуровневое реле мощности и многослойная система цифровой поддержки.
Все, чему его учили, свидетельствовало о чрезвычайности ситуации. Тот факт, что в лаборатории систем безопасности никого нет, а монитор был выключен, больше не имело значения.
Медсестра была уже совсем близко и что-то кричала Беккеру по-испански, но он ничего не слышал. Его глаза не отрывались от губ Клушара. Он еще раз сжал его руку, но тут наконец подбежала медсестра.
- Но как только я узнаю, что вы следите за мной, я немедленно расскажу всю эту историю журналистам. Я расскажу, что Цифровая крепость - это большая липа, и отправлю на дно все ваше мерзкое ведомство. Стратмор мысленно взвешивал это предложение. Оно было простым и ясным.
Он зря мне доверился.
Давайте скорее. Попробуем порыскать. ГЛАВА 125 - Сколько у нас времени? - крикнул Джабба.
Он снова ответил Да. Мгновение спустя компьютер подал звуковой сигнал. СЛЕДОПЫТ ОТОЗВАН Хейл улыбнулся. Компьютер только что отдал ее Следопыту команду самоуничтожиться раньше времени, так что ей не удастся найти то, что она ищет.