Research Methodology In The Medical And Biological Sciences Pdf

research methodology in the medical and biological sciences pdf

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Providing easy-to-access information, this unique sourcebook covers the wide range of topics that a researcher must be familiar with in order to become a successful experimental scientist. Perfect for aspiring as well as practicing professionals in the medical and biological sciences it discusses a broad range of topics that are common, yet not traditionally considered part of formal curricula. The information presented also facilitates communication across conventional disciplinary boundaries, in line with the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of modern research projects.

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The case-crossover design is suited to medication safety studies but is vulnerable to exposure misclassification. Using the example of tricyclic antidepressants and the risk of hip fracture, we present a data Authors: Michael J. Leach, Elizabeth E. Roughead and Nicole L.

Research Methodology

This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Philosophy of the social sciences. Appendix 1. Basic principles of human research ethics. The ethics of animal research.

Your scientific problem. More on scientific problems. Literature, methods and techniques. Research conditions. Data types. Repeatability, reproducibility and reliability.

Validity, effect measure and choice of statistical test. Experimental protocol. Experimental routine. Systematic literature search. How to formulate a query: PICO. Search technique. Methodology filters. Quality: critical appraisal. Impact factor. Principal bibliographic databases. Staying up to date. Medical and scientific internet search engines. Personal reference databases. Haraldstad and Ellen Christophersen 5. Recombinant DNA technology.

Protein analyses. Vatn 8. Thelle and Petter Laake 9. Measurement error and sources of error. Tests and validity. Causes of disease. Association versus causality. Bradley At the same time, schooling is as demanding as ever, in the form of formal coursework in scientific theory and practice.

We hope that this textbook will make academic life easier for graduate students. The history of this book began in in a Norwegian national programme for medical faculty studies leading to PhD degrees, which in part called for a compulsory course for all students enrolled in doctoral programmes at medical faculties.

The course covers a broad range of topics and now has been held several times. Its curriculum comprises the basis of this book, which was first published in Norwegian by Gyldendal Akademisk. This edition in English is a revised and expanded version of the Norwegian edition.

There are several reasons for the broad range of topics included in the courses and in this book. Doctoral studies should qualify the candidate for research as well as for other professional pursuits requiring scientific insight, not least in the basics of the research process, in both depth and breadth.

Doctoral students at medical faculties have a variety of backgrounds that may include undergraduate studies in medicine, the natural sciences, the social sciences or nursing. Many of these students may have gained only narrow scientific capabilities, so that even after finishing their graduate studies, they will barely be able to work with or be advised by colleagues other than those within their own narrow fields.

Consequently, it is essential that studies leading to a doctoral degree include schooling in general scientific research, regardless of the specific discipline pursued. Some of these books are referenced and listed under Further Reading at the end of the chapters.

But in our experience, few doctoral candidates read professional books, mostly because the time allocated for studies is so short that extracurricular reading is limited to journals at best. Hence, we believe that there is a need for a book such as this one, comprehensive yet succinct. This book is intended for students with various professional backgrounds. Multidisciplinary communication and research cooperation are increasingly important, so scientists in any one scientific community should be familiar with and respect the traditions of other scientific communities.

Simply put, this book outlines the curriculum for doctoral candidates in medicine, but is also intended for students in the biological and biomedical fields. We hope that it can give the reader a broad scientific perspective. We believe that everyone in the medical and biomedical sciences should know a little about all the topics of this book, and that all should have deeper knowledge of topics relative to their disciplines.

We have tried to make the material easily accessible for a broad group of readers, in part through including many examples. For instance, Chapter 11 on Statistical Issues includes examples of statistical data analyses. Along with these data files, we have included some statistical tables. We chose the SPSS statistical program package for presenting examples.

Other application packages could have served equally well. We extend our thanks to Bruce Reed for his critical reading of the manuscript of Chapter 15 and for offering expert advice to grant applications. We gratefully acknowledge the translation and editing by M. Michael Brady. He has lectured students of medicine, odontology, nutrition and physiotherapy, and has been an adviser for master and graduate students at the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University and at the Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education.

For many years, he has been the faculty consultant in university teaching. Jointly with Jens-Gustav Iversen, he has held various basic courses for undergraduate and graduate students, compiled compendia for these courses and written a textbook of anatomy, physiology and immunology for social and health studies in upper secondary schools. Before then, for 13 years she was on the staff of the Department of Immunology at the Norwegian Radium Hospital.

She has advised many master students and graduate students at the Faculties of Medicine and of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of the University of Oslo. She is an experienced lecturer in immunology and cell biology at both faculties, and she has also taught graduate and postgraduate courses for bioengineers and medical doctors. In recent years, she has been involved in the teaching of lecture techniques in the graduate studies programme at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo.

He has presided over a number of international courses in evidence-based medicine in cooperation with the CASP international network. From to he contributed to teaching on the graduate studies programme at the medical faculty at the University of Oslo.

Chief Librarian Ellen Christophersen b. She has had 15 years of versatile practice in specialized libraries, mostly medical libraries. For the past five years, she has worked specifically with courses and teaching schemes for staff and students at the National Hospital and at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo.

Since , she has taken part in courses on medical research methods as a lecturer and adviser in systematic literature search and reference processing. Professor Erik Dissen MD b. Since , he has worked with molecular biology methods, with immunology as a principal interest. He has been an adviser for master and graduate students and researchers at the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, and has been lecturing in cell biology, immunology and histology.

He has lectured on statistics for a broad range of students at all levels, including master and graduate courses in statistics, as well as applied courses for lawyers, engineers and medical doctors. He is currently concerned principally with genetic linkage and association studies aimed to localize disease-predisposing variants. He started an activity now known as the Immunobiological Laboratory, in which the principal research entails molecular biological studies of how leucocytes recognize target cells.

He has lectured students of medicine, odontology, nutrition and physiotherapy, and has been an adviser for master and graduate students at the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University.

Jointly with Per Brodal and Hans A. Dahl, he has written a textbook in anatomy and physiology for healthcare personnel. He has written a compendium in cell biology, and he is a frequent lecturer in ongoing education and graduate studies for medical doctors, engineers and other healthcare personnel. Professor Harald Grimen PhD b. For several years, he has lectured in the philosophy of science and in methods for various disciplines. She has more than 20 years of versatile experience in medical libraries, and for the past 12 years has been responsible for courses and teaching schemes for staff and students at the National Hospital and at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo.

He has conducted research in the philosophies of technology and science, ethics and research methods, and has lectured and advised in several healthcare disciplines at all levels, from undergraduate to postgraduate programmes. He has been responsible for the graduate course in the philosophy of science and research ethics for healthcare professionals at the Section for Medical Ethics. His education is in medicine and medical ethics, and he has lectured in medical ethics, philosophy of science and research methods at universities in Norway, Denmark and the United Kingdom.

Professor of Medical Anthropology Benedicte Ingstad b. She established and leads the Section for Medical Anthropology. Her specialist fields include qualitative methods in medical research, in which she has arranged several graduate courses. She has conducted research work in southern Africa, Greenland and Norway.

He lectured students of medicine, odontology and nutrition, and was an adviser for master and graduate students at the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University. Jointly with Haakon B. Benestad, he held various basic courses for undergraduate and graduate students, compiled compendia for these courses and wrote a textbook of anatomy, physiology and immunology for social and health studies in upper secondary schools.

Research Design and Methodology

Scheelbeek et al report on how focus group discussion in low-income settings can be improved and suggest the tailoring of the exercises, as well as thorough training and selection of the facilitators. The further mention that adequate piloting and adaptation are crucial to respond to various study settings. In this Database article, Rada et al screened over 1,, records and identified more than , systematic reviews relevant for health decision-making, which are now stored in a single place and accessible through an easy-to-use search engine, making Epistemonikos the largest database of its kind. Hamel et al evaluated the performance of the prioritization simulation tool to determine the reduction in screening burden and time. A modified or stop screening approach appears to be a valid method for rapid reviews, but application in systematic and prospective reviews needs to be further evaluated. Authors: Michael J.

Research Methodology in the Medical and Biological Sciences

There are a number of approaches used in this research method design. The purpose of this chapter is to design the methodology of the research approach through mixed types of research techniques. The research approach also supports the researcher on how to come across the research result findings. In this chapter, the general design of the research and the methods used for data collection are explained in detail. It includes three main parts.

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Clinical Research Methodology Curriculum

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A protocol or a synopsis of a research project is a document submitted to an authority or an institution for the purpose of. Synopsis is the gist of your planned project submitted for approval from competent authorities. It gives a panoramic view of your research for quick analysis by the reviewers.

This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Philosophy of the social sciences. Appendix 1. Basic principles of human research ethics.

Research Methodology in the Medical and Biological Sciences

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