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- An update on carbohydrases: growth performance and intestinal health of poultry
- THE USE OF SORGHUM-BARLEY BREWER'S SPENT GRAIN (SBBSG) AS FEED INGREDIENT FOR POULTRY
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An update on carbohydrases: growth performance and intestinal health of poultry
Coccidiosis-challenged broiler chickens were fed graded levels of hulless barley HB and BGase to determine their effects on growth performance. A total of 5, broilers were raised in litter floor pens and vaccinated for coccidiosis in feed and water on day 5. Each treatment was assigned to 1 pen 66 birds in each of 9 rooms. The 0. No interaction was found for ileal digesta viscosity at day 11; the level of HB did not affect viscosity, but both levels of BGase decreased viscosity.
In conclusion, HB reduced broiler performance, and BGase alleviated most but not all the effects. The reduction in the use of in-feed antibiotics has made an investigation of alternatives to antibiotics a major research priority. Probiotics, prebiotics, essential oils, volatile fatty acids e. For a complete understanding of the efficacy of alternatives, testing in chickens undergoing a disease challenge is essential so that their ability to alleviate adverse infection effects can be more clearly delineated.
The use of exogenous enzymes, especially nonstarch polysaccharidases, in poultry feed has been suggested as an alternative to antibiotics because many previous studies demonstrated beneficial effects of these enzymes on performance and gut health parameters in chickens Bedford, Xylanase supplementation in poultry feed has received the most attention because arabinoxylans are commonly found in the cell walls of predominant cereal grains wheat and maize used in the poultry industry.
Although the effect of BGase on reducing digesta viscosity is well-established, the evaluation of BGase dose on broiler performance is essential to determine if increasing levels of BGase can achieve a higher growth performance, possibly through increasing microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of broilers fed barley-based diets. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of hulless barley HB and BGase levels on the growth performance of broiler chickens under a coccidiosis challenge at different age groups.
It was hypothesized HB would decrease broiler performance, whereas exogenous BGase will increase the performance in a dose-dependent manner in broilers of all age groups fed HB-based diets. There were 9 floor pens in each room. Each of the 9 dietary treatments was randomly assigned to 1 pen per room, providing 9 replications per treatment. An equal amount of straw was placed in each room with a 7. Light intensity was 20 lux at the start of the trial and gradually reduced to 10 lux by day Each pen was provided with a height-adjustable nipple drinker, each having 6 Lubing nipples.
Starter diets were fed from day 0 to 11 and grower diets after that. Diets were formulated in accordance with Ross broiler nutrition specifications Aviagen, The starter diets were made in crumble form, and the grower diets were initially given in a crumble form, and then switched to a pellet form. Beta-glucanase EC 3. Xylanase activity was nondetectable in the diets, and BGase activity approximated the expected enzyme activity values.
Vaccination 1. Feeders and drinkers were raised in each pen to prevent bird access before starting vaccination and kept up until the vaccine containing supplementary feed and water were consumed. Therefore, birds only had access to vaccinated feed during that time. Performance parameters including feed intake FI and body weight were taken on a pen basis at day 11, 22, and Mortality was recorded daily, and dead birds were sent to Prairie Diagnostic Services University of Saskatchewan for necropsy.
At each collection day day 11 and 33 , 2 birds were selected from each pen and euthanized by injection of T containing embutramide, mebezonium iodide, and tetracaine hydrochloride Merck Animal Health, Kirkland, Quebec, Canada into the brachial vein.
Tissues were removed from the bird carcass, separated into different gastrointestinal tract GIT sections crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon , and then full and empty weights and lengths when appropriate were recorded.
Content weight was obtained by subtracting empty from the full weight. The liver, spleen, and pancreas were removed and weighed. Empty weights, lengths, content, and organ weights were divided by individual body weights to obtain relative weights of each parameter.
Beta-glucan was analyzed AOAC method Wicklow, Ireland. The total starch analysis was completed based on AOAC method Joseph, MA , and 6. Moisture was analyzed using the AOAC method The experiment was a randomized complete block design with a room used as a block to account for potential environmental differences between rooms. Data were analyzed using a 2-way analysis of variance of SAS 9. Mean separation was completed using the Tukey-Kramer test. Data were tested for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test and the percentage data were log-transformed when they were not normally distributed.
In wheat, Total starch, CP, fat, and ash were analyzed as Similarly, F:G was lower for birds fed diets containing 0. Feed to gain ratio was also not affected by enzyme level for the 2 lower HB levels, but the 0. Feed intake increased with the 0. Feed-to-gain ratio was lower with 0. The total mortality of the flock was 4.
Only 3. However, These data support the conclusion that vaccination with Coccivac-B52 induced a disease challenge in experimental birds. The interaction between the main effects was significant for viscosity at day Interactions between HB and BGase treatments were found for the digesta content of the crop, duodenum, ileum, and ceca. The spleen weights were proportionally heavier for 0 and 0.
The pancreas weight increased with increasing levels of HB, and the weight for the 0. Gastrointestinal tract size and content weights were affected by HB and BGase at day Interactions between the main effects were seen for the jejunum and ileum lengths.
The addition of 0. An interaction was found for the content weight of the small intestine, which was lower with 0. The liver and pancreas weights increased with the level of diet HB, whereas the liver weights were lower when BGase was included in the diet.
Performance variables of broiler chickens in this study were within a normal range in accordance with Ross Broiler Performance Objectives Aviagen, , and were affected by treatment in an age-dependent manner. The analyzed TDF was Therefore, the assumption which was made during the diet formulation regarding the approximately similar nutrient content of HB and wheat was not accurate. Consequently, the broiler performance was reduced with the addition of HB to the wheat-based diets.
In addition, comparatively lower nutrient digestibility might also be related to the poor performance in the broilers fed HB-based diets in comparison with wheat. Body weight gain and F:G improved with the 0. By contrast, production performance increased with both 0. The differences in BGase dose effects on performance do not appear to relate to digesta viscosity because, at both ages, viscosity was numerically lower for the 0.
Therefore, digesta viscosity cannot be identified as the primary mechanism of action that affects broiler performance. The variation of BGase level effects on the broiler performance at different ages may indicate that young and older broilers vary in their ability to effectively utilize lower MW, fermentable carbohydrates.
The levels of SCFA in the ceca increased with 0. Therefore, it might further reduce the performance, although the particular bacteria involved in this gut microbial shift is unknown in the present study.
The age effect on viscosity is substantial in the present study, although the statistical separation of means is not possible. The age-related digesta viscosity reduction can also be explained by the increased ability of gut microbiota to secrete BGase. By contrast, HB did not affect the ileal viscosity values at day 11, although BGase reduced the viscosity in these young birds.
Therefore, the effect of BGase might be subdued more at day 11 than at day 33 when the birds were assumed to be recovered. However, BGase might play a role in mitigating this disease condition by further reducing ileal viscosity and enabling more efficient digestion because the enzyme effect is significant on the viscosity, although it was lowered due to coccidiosis. The improved broiler performance with increasing BGase levels might be associated with increased digestibility of nutrients.
The relative empty weights and lengths of some digestive tract tissues decreased with BGase at day 11 and 33, and this might be associated with increased nutrient digestibility that leads to less requirement for a more extensive digestive tract. Beta-glucanase improves enzymatic efficiency of nutrient digestion, hence fewer enzymes are needed; consequently the pancreas is smaller.
It is concluded that HB reduced the growth performance, whereas exogenous BGase increased the performance in a dose-dependent manner in broiler chickens. Overall, HB increased the digestive tract tissue weights and lengths, and digesta content, whereas exogenous BGase decreased the same parameters. The support given by the Poultry Centre staff at the University of Saskatchewan is also acknowledged. The authors have no financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that can inappropriately influence the work.
One author, Dr. Bedford, works for the company that manufactures an enzyme used in this study, but he did not inappropriately influence this work. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Poult Sci v. Poult Sci. Published online Nov 2. Namalika D. Rex W. Andrew G. Michael R. Henry L. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
THE USE OF SORGHUM-BARLEY BREWER'S SPENT GRAIN (SBBSG) AS FEED INGREDIENT FOR POULTRY
Poultry is an imperative domesticated livestock species that provides high quality protein and micronutrients as meat and eggs. Feed mainly consists of cereal grains, those provide energy to the birds. However, these grains contain different levels of anti-nutritional factors such as non-starch polysaccharides NSP. These NSP are indigestible by poultry birds due to the lack of vital endogenous enzymes carbohydrases thus increase intestinal viscosity which slower the migration and absorption of nutrients. Consequently, these NSP may also increase the chances for infection by inducing competition within gut microbiota for digestible nutrients.
Growers often find bird nests around structures where food is washed, packaged, stored, and shipped. However, identification of these nests can be challenging. This article provides guidance on identifying nests of bird species commonly found nesting in barns, sheds, or other farm buildings. Most bird species included in this article are known to carry bacteria that cause food safety problems, such as pathogenic E. However, some of these birds are also known to eat pest insects or rodents, so promoting nesting in appropriate areas can provide valuable natural pest control.
The immunological parameters were assessed to observe the protective efficacy of MG. When compared to the treatment regime, it was observed that in all the cases, group B birds showed higher immune-cellular and humoral responses in terms of enhanced immune-effector activities of blood leucocytes and intestinal intra-epithelial leucocytes and antibody production besides protection against NDV challenge than the others. The superoxide anion production by blood leucocytes of group A 0. Group A Many disorders could be treated using immunostimulants such as autoimmune diseases, viral infections and cancer Shahbazi and Bolhassani,
The effects of β-glucans as active immunomodulators in mammals have been well Request Full-text Paper PDF Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX model (2-way interaction) and Effect of yeast cell wall supplementation in laying hen feed on economic viability, egg production, and egg quality.
Publications Book Chapter: R. Jha and S. Kim
Metrics details. Xylan is the second most abundant naturally occurring renewable polysaccharide available on earth. It is a complex heteropolysaccharide consisting of different monosaccharides such as l -arabinose, d -galactose, d -mannoses and organic acids such as acetic acid, ferulic acid, glucuronic acid interwoven together with help of glycosidic and ester bonds.
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and β-1,4 bonds (Storsley et al., ). β-glucans form gels in the components of barley fiber are arabinoxylans. (Ferrari et al. performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens was investigated in an other nutrients levels were analyzed following standard methods of analysis (AOAC, ). Productive.