File Name: possessed the rise and fall of prince .zip
Follow the Author
This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia , and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans , Anatolia , Middle East and North Africa.
For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the "Proto-Imperial Era". By the middle of the fifteenth century the Ottoman sultans were able to accumulate enough personal power and authority to establish a centralized imperial state, a process which was brought to fruition by Sultan Mehmed II r.
The cause of Ottoman success cannot be attributed to any single factor, and they varied throughout the period as the Ottomans continually adapted to changing circumstances. The earlier part of this period, the fourteenth century, is particularly difficult for historians to study due to the scarcity of sources.
Not a single written document survives from the reign of Osman I , and very little survives from the rest of the century. At the beginning of the thirteenth century Anatolia was divided between two relatively powerful states: the Byzantine Empire in the west and the Anatolian Seljuks in the central plateau.
Mongol pressure pushed nomadic Turkish tribes to migrate westward, into the now poorly-defended Byzantine territory.
For the next two centuries, Anatolian Beyliks were under the suzerainty of the Mongols , specially the Ilkhanate. All coins minted during this period in Anatolia show Ilkhanate rulers. From the s onward Anatolia increasingly began to slip from Byzantine control, as Turkish Anatolian beyliks were established both in formerly Byzantine lands and in the territory of the fragmenting Seljuk Sultanate.
Political authority in western Anatolia was thus extremely fragmented by the end of the thirteenth century, split between locally established rulers, tribal groups, holy figures, and warlords, with Byzantine and Seljuk authority ever present but rapidly weakening. Western Anatolia was then a hotbed of raiding activity, with warriors switching allegiance at will to whichever chief seemed most able to provide them with opportunities for plunder and glory.
The Ottoman dynasty is named after the first ruler of the Ottoman polity, Osman I. According to later Ottoman tradition, he was descended from a Turkic tribe which migrated out of Central Asia in the wake of the Mongol Conquests. The origin of the Ottoman dynasty isn't known for sure but it is known that it was established by Turks from Central Asia, who migrated to Anatolia and were under Mongol suzerainty.
Likewise, nothing is known about how Osman first established his principality beylik as the sources, none of them contemporary, provide many different and conflicting origin stories.
The emergence of Osman as a leader is marked by him issuing coins in his name, unlike his predecessors in the last two centuries who issued coins in the name of the Illkhanates. Thus it was inclusive of all who wished to join, including people of Byzantine origin. Islam and Persian culture were part of Ottoman self-identity from the start, as evidenced by a land grant issued by Osman's son Orhan in , describing him as "Champion of the Faith".
In the Austrian historian Paul Wittek published an influential work entitled The Rise of the Ottoman Empire , in which he put forth the argument that the early Ottoman state was constructed upon an ideology of Islamic holy war against non-Muslims. Such a war was known as gaza , and a warrior fighting in it was called a gazi.
Beginning in the s, historians increasingly criticized Wittek's thesis. It was only later, in the fifteenth century, that Ottoman writers retroactively began to portray the early Ottomans as zealous Islamic warriors, in order to provide a noble origin for their dynasty which, by then, had constructed an intercontinental Islamic empire. Anatolia and the Balkans were greatly impacted by the arrival of the Black Death after Urban centers and settled regions were devastated, while nomadic groups suffered less of an impact.
The first Ottoman incursions into the Balkans began shortly thereafter. Depopulation resulting from the plague was thus almost certainly a major factor in the success of early Ottoman expansion into the Balkans, and contributed to the weakening of the Byzantine Empire and the depopulation of Constantinople.
During this early period, before the Ottomans were able to establish a centralized system of government in the middle of the fifteenth century, the rulers' powers were "far more circumscribed, and depended heavily upon coalitions of support and alliances reached" among various power-holders within the empire, including Turkic tribal leaders and Balkan allies and vassals.
When the Ottoman polity first emerged at the end of the thirteenth century under the leadership of Osman I , it had a tribal organization without a complex administrative apparatus. As Ottoman territory expanded, its rulers were faced with the challenge of administering an ever-larger population. Early on, the Ottomans adopted the Seljuks of Rum as models for administration and the Illkhanates as models for military warfare, and by were able to produce Persian-language bureaucratic documents in the Seljuk style.
The early Ottoman state's expansion was fueled by the military activity of frontier warriors Turkish : gazi , of whom the Ottoman ruler was initially merely primus inter pares. Much of the state's centralization was carried out in opposition to these frontier warriors, who resented Ottoman efforts to control them.
Ultimately, the Ottomans managed to harness gazi military power while increasingly subordinating them. The early Ottomans were noteworthy for the low tax rates which they imposed on their subjects. This reflected both an ideological concern for the well-being of their subjects, and also a pragmatic need to earn the loyalty of newly conquered populations.
In the fifteenth century, the Ottoman state became more centralized and the tax burden increased, prompting criticism from writers. An important factor in Ottoman success was their ability to preserve the empire across generations.
Other Turkic groups frequently divided their realms between the sons of a deceased ruler. The Ottomans consistently kept the empire united under a single heir. The process of centralization is closely connected with an influx of Muslim scholars from Central Anatolia, where a more urban and bureaucratic Turkish civilization had developed under the Seljuks of Rum. Such measures frustrated the gazi , who sustained Ottoman military conquests, and created lasting tensions within the state.
Such power of appointment indicates that the Ottoman rulers were no longer merely primus inter pares. As a way of openly declaring this new status, Murad became the first Ottoman ruler to adopt the title of sultan. Beginning in the s, but most likely earlier, the Ottomans conducted regular cadastral surveys of the territory under their rule, producing record-books known as tahrir defter s.
These surveys enabled the Ottoman state to organize the distribution of agricultural taxation rights to the military class of timariots , cavalrymen who collected revenue from the land in exchange for serving in the Ottoman army. Timariots came from diverse backgrounds. Some achieved their position as a reward for military service, while others were descended from the Byzantine aristocracy and simply continued to collect revenue from their old lands, now serving in the Ottoman army as well.
Of the latter, many were converts to Islam, while others remained Christian. Of great symbolic importance for Ottoman centralization was the practice of Ottoman rulers to stand upon hearing martial music, indicating their willingness to participate in gaza.
Shortly after the Conquest of Constantinople in , Mehmed II discontinued this practice, indicating that the Ottoman ruler was no longer a simple frontier warrior, but the sovereign of an empire.
This was seen, both symbolically and practically, as the moment of the empire's definitive shift from a frontier principality into an empire. Osman's army at the beginning of the fourteenth century consisted largely of mounted warriors. However, he initially lacked the means to conduct sieges. Bursa , the first major town conquered by the Ottomans, surrendered under threat of starvation following a long blockade rather than from an assault.
It was under Orhan r. The warriors in Osman's service came from diverse backgrounds. Most of Osman's early followers were Muslim Turks of tribal origin, while others were of Byzantine origin, either Christians or recent converts to Islam.
The Ottomans began employing gunpowder weapons in the s at the latest. By the s they were regularly using cannons in siege warfare. Cannons were also used for fortress defense, and shore batteries allowed the Ottomans to bypass a Crusader blockade of the Dardanelles in By that time, handheld firearms had also come into use, and were adopted by some of the janissaries.
By the early fifteenth century, the Ottoman court was actively fostering literary output, much of it borrowing from the longstanding literary tradition of other Islamic courts further east. Thus rather than providing a factual account of the dynasty's history, Ahmedi's goal was to indirectly criticize the sultan by depicting his ancestors as model rulers, in contrast to the perceived deviance of Bayezid.
Specifically, Ahmedi took issue with Bayezid's military campaigns against fellow Muslims in Anatolia, and thus depicted his ancestors as totally devoted to holy war against the Christian states of the Balkans. Osman's origins are extremely obscure, and almost nothing is known about his career before the beginning of the fourteenth century.
He led frequent raids against the neighboring Byzantine Empire. Success attracted warriors to his following, particularly after his victory over a Byzantine army in the Battle of Bapheus in or Osman was adept at forging political and commercial relationships with nearby groups, Muslim as well as Christian.
Osman I strengthened his legitimacy by marrying the daughter of Sheikh Edebali, a prominent local religious leader who was said to have been at the head of a community of dervishes on the frontier. Later Ottoman writers embellished this event by depicting Osman as having experienced a dream while staying with Edebali, in which it was foretold that his descendants would rule over a vast empire.
Upon Osman's death his son Orhan succeeded him as leader of the Ottomans. Orhan oversaw the conquest of Bithynia 's major towns, as Bursa Prusa was conquered in and the rest of the region's towns fell shortly thereafter. It was under Orhan that the Ottomans began to attract Islamic scholars from the east to act as administrators and judges, and the first medrese University was established in Iznik in In addition to fighting the Byzantines, Orhan also conquered the Turkish principality of Karesi in , thus placing all potential crossing points to Europe in Ottoman hands.
Orhan decided to pursue war against Europe, Anatolian Turks were settled in and around Gallipoli to secure it as a springboard for military operations in Thrace against the Byzantines and Bulgarians. Most of eastern Thrace was overrun by Ottoman forces within a decade and was permanently brought under Orhan's control by means of heavy colonization.
The initial Thracian conquests placed the Ottomans strategically astride all of the major overland communication routes linking Constantinople to the Balkan frontiers, facilitating their expanded military operations. Byzantine Emperor John V was forced to sign an unfavorable treaty with Orhan in that recognized his Thracian losses.
In taking control over the passageways to Europe, the Ottomans gained a significant advantage over their rival Turkish principalities in Anatolia, as they now could gain immense prestige and booty from conquests carried out on the Balkan frontier. Soon after Orhan's death in , Murad I became Sultan.
Murad's first major offensive was the conquest of the Byzantine city of Adrianople in He renamed it to Edirne and made it his new capital in Before the conquest of Edirne, most Christian Europeans regarded the Ottoman presence in Thrace as merely the latest unpleasant episode in a long string of chaotic events in the Balkans.
After Murad I designated Edirne as his capital, they realized that the Ottomans intended to remain in Europe. The Balkan states of Byzantium , Bulgaria , and Serbia were frightened by Ottoman conquests in Thrace, and were ill-prepared to deal with the threat. Byzantine territory was reduced and fragmented. It consisted mostly of the capital, Constantinople and its Thracian environs, the city of Thessaloniki and its immediate surroundings, and the Despotate of the Morea in the Peloponnese.
Contact between Constantinople and the two other regions was only feasible via a tenuous sea route through the Dardanelles , kept open by the Italian maritime powers of Venice and Genoa. The weakened Byzantine Empire no longer possessed the resources to defeat Murad on its own. Concerted action on the part of the Byzantines, often divided by civil war, was impossible. The survival of Constantinople itself depended on its legendary defensive walls, the lack of an Ottoman navy, and the willingness of Murad to honor provisions in the treaty, which permitted the city to be provisioned.
Bulgaria under Tsar Ivan Aleksandar was expanding and prosperous. However, at the end of his rule, the Bulgarian Tsar made the fatal mistake to divide the Second Bulgarian Empire into three appanages held by his sons. Bulgaria's cohesion was shattered further in the s by a rivalry between the holder of Vidin , Ivan Sratsimir , Ivan Aleksandar's sole surviving son by his first wife, and Ivan Shishman , the product of Aleksandar's second marriage and the tsar's designated successor.
In addition to internal problems, Bulgaria was further crippled by a Hungarian attack. Although the Hungarians were repulsed and Ivan Sratsimir restored to his throne, Bulgaria emerged more intensely divided. Ivan Sratsimir proclaimed himself tsar of an "Empire" of Vidin in , and Dobrotitsa received de facto recognition as independent despot in Dobrudzha.
Search this site. Sanders Chaplain. Who Stands on Guard? Michael Alvarez. Souheil Ghannouchi. Omar Khayyam.
Phone or email. Don't remember me. The Book Hub. All posts At least, not anymore
Watch fullscreen. Prince - Possessed. Daley Sonny. World's Greatest Showman Playing next
Rise of the Ottoman Empire
See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. Uploaded by Lotu Tii on January 12, Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass.
Search this site. Free The Traitor Prince book by C. The Traitor Prince by C. Perfect for fans of the Court of Thorns and Roses series and the Wrath and the Dawn duology, The Traitor Prince is a thrilling new standalone novel in the Ravenspire series. Javan Najafai, crown prince of Akram, has spent the last ten years at an elite boarding school, far away from his kingdom.