On The Cult Of Personality And Its Consequences Pdf

on the cult of personality and its consequences pdf

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First published in Robert Brandom ed.

Soviet party leader Nikita Khrushchev denounces Josef Stalin's purges and the personality cult at 20th Soviet Party Conference, ushering in a less repressive era in the Soviet Union. A cult of personality, or cult of the leader, arises when a country's regime — or, more rarely, an individual — uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise. However, how much of the cult was an intentional construction by Stalin himself in unclear. According to Nikita Khrushchev's speech, "On the Cult of Personality and its Consequences," and Robert Conquest, a great number of accusations, notably those presented at the Moscow show trials, were based on forced confessions, often obtained through torture, and on loose interpretations of Article 58 of the RSFSR Penal Code, which dealt with counter-revolutionary crimes. Scanned by Alex Boykowich.

Almanac - Thursday 2/25/21

Khrushchev's speech was sharply critical of the rule of the deceased General Secretary and Premier Joseph Stalin , particularly with respect to the purges which had especially marked the last years of the s. Khrushchev charged Stalin with having fostered a leadership cult of personality despite ostensibly maintaining support for the ideals of communism. The speech was leaked to the west by the Israeli intelligence agency, Shin Bet , which received it from the Polish-Jewish journalist Wiktor Grajewski.

The speech was shocking in its day. There are reports that the audience reacted with applause and laughter at several points. In response, they formed the anti-revisionist movement, criticizing the post-Stalin leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union for allegedly deviating from the path of Lenin and Stalin. The speech was a milestone in the Khrushchev Thaw. It possibly served Khrushchev's ulterior motives to legitimize and consolidate his control of the Soviet Union's party and government after political struggles with Georgy Malenkov and firm Stalin loyalists such as Vyacheslav Molotov , who were involved to varying degrees in the purges.

The text of the Khrushchev report was widely discussed in party cells in early March, often with the participation of non-party members; however, the official Russian text was openly published only in during the glasnost campaign of the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.

The issue of mass repressions was known to Soviet leaders well before the speech. The speech itself was prepared based on the results of a special party commission chairman Pyotr Pospelov , P.

The direct goal of the commission was to investigate the repressions of the delegates of the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party Bolsheviks in The 17th Congress was selected for investigations because it was known as "the Congress of Victors" in the country of "victorious socialism" and so the enormous number of "enemies" among the participants demanded explanation.

The commission presented evidence that in and the peak of the period known as the Great Purge , over one-and-a-half million individuals, majority long time CPSU members, were arrested for "anti-Soviet activities", of whom over , were executed.

The public session of the 20th Congress had come to a formal end on 24 February , when word was spread to delegates to return to the Great Hall of the Kremlin for an additional "closed session" to which journalists, guests and delegates from "fraternal parties" from outside the Soviet Union were not invited.

Premier Nikolai Bulganin , chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union and then an ally of Khrushchev, called the session to order and immediately yielded the floor to Khrushchev, [8] who began his speech shortly after midnight on 25 February. For the next four hours, Khrushchev delivered "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" before stunned delegates. Khrushchev read from a prepared report, and no stenographic record of the closed session was kept.

On 1 March, the text of the Khrushchev speech was distributed in printed form to senior Central Committee functionaries. Shortly after the conclusion of the speech, reports of its occurrence and its general content were conveyed to the West by Reuters journalist John Rettie , who had been informed of the event a few hours before he was due to leave for Stockholm.

It was therefore reported in the Western media in early March. Rettie believed the information came from Khrushchev himself via an intermediary. However, the text of the speech was only slowly disclosed in Eastern Europe. It was never disclosed to Western communist party members by the nomenklatura , and most Western communists only became aware of the details of the text after The New York Times 5 June , Le Monde 6 June and The Observer 10 June published versions of the full text.

The content of the speech reached the West through a circuitous route. A few copies of the speech were sent by order of the Soviet Politburo to leaders of the Eastern Bloc countries. On her desk was a thick booklet with a red binding, with the words: "The 20th Party Congress, the speech of Comrade Khrushchev".

Grajewski had heard rumours of the speech and as a journalist was interested in reading it. Baranowska allowed him to take the document home to read.

As it happened, Grajewski had made a recent trip to Israel to visit his sick father and decided to emigrate there. After he read the speech, he decided to take it to the Israeli embassy and gave it to Yaakov Barmor who had helped Grajewski make his trip. Barmor, a Shin Bet representative, took photographs of the document and sent them to Israel. By the afternoon of 13 April , the Shin Bet in Israel had received the photographs. Israeli intelligence and United States intelligence had previously secretly agreed to co-operate on security matters.

The photographs were delivered to him. While Khrushchev was not hesitant to point out the flaws in Stalinist practice in regard to the purges of the army and party and the management of the Great Patriotic War , the Soviet Union's involvement in World War II , he was very careful to avoid any criticism of Stalin's industrialization policy or party ideology.

Khrushchev was a staunch party man and lauded Leninism and communist ideology in his speech as often as he condemned Stalin's actions. Stalin, Khrushchev argued, was the primary victim of the deleterious effect of the cult of personality, [16] which, through his existing flaws, had transformed him from a crucial part of the victories of Lenin into a paranoiac man who was easily influenced by the "rabid enemy of our party", Lavrentiy Beria. On 30 June , the Central Committee of the party issued a resolution, "On Overcoming the Cult of the Individual and Its Consequences", [18] which served as the party's official and public pronouncement on the Stalin era.

Written under the guidance of Mikhail Suslov , it did not mention Khrushchev's specific allegations. Khrushchev's speech was followed by a period of liberalization, known as the Khrushchev Thaw , into the early s.

In , the body of Stalin was removed from public view in Lenin's mausoleum and buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. As to how, and in what social conditions, a bloodthirsty paranoiac could for twenty-five years exercise unlimited despotic power over a country of two hundred million inhabitants, which throughout that period had been blessed with the most progressive and democratic system of government in human history—to this enigma the speech offered no clue whatever.

All that was certain was that the Soviet system and the party itself remained impeccably pure and bore no responsibility for the tyrant's atrocities". Western historians also tended to take a somewhat critical view of the speech. Arch Getty commented in that "Khrushchev's revelations [ It is hard to avoid the impression that the revelations had political purposes in Khrushchev's struggle with Molotov , Malenkov , and Kaganovich ".

But many western historians were sceptical about Khrushchev's efforts to lay all the blame for past communist crimes on Stalin". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Report by Nikita Khrushchev on 25 Feb. For other uses, see Secret speech disambiguation. Soviet leadership. Related topics. Clines 6 April New York Times. Retrieved 29 February BBC Radio 4. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ; pp. Retrieved 1 May Ellen Dahrendorf, trans. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, , p.

Accessed 12 September Russia: A History of the Soviet Period. Engelwood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Oxford: Clarendon Press. New York: Cambridge University Press, London: Yale University Press. Joseph Stalin. History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Articles with long short description Short description matches Wikidata Use dmy dates from February Articles containing Russian-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October AC with 0 elements.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Part of a series on the. Soviet Union portal.

on the cult of personality and its consequences pdf

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On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences. Rosa Lyster is a writer who lives in Cape Town. Create an account OV 10 points 11 points 12 points 1 year ago. However it possibly served … Five studies provided evidence supporting this hypothesis. Indeed, it was a primary feature of Soviet culture during his reign. Ostensibly, the speech was an attempt to draw the Soviet Communist Party closer to Leninism.

Indeed, it was a primary feature of Soviet culture during his reign. Rosa Lyster is a writer who lives in Cape Town. Khrushchev charged Stalin with having fostered a leadership personality cult despite ostensibly maintaining support for the ideals of communism. They come from many sources and are not checked. As we can see "a secret speech" has a title.


Khrushchev's Secret Speech, 'On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences,' Delivered at the Twentieth Party. Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet.


On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences

The analysis of the social networking sites and blogs indicates that more and more often women themselves are encouraged to promote their attractive, thin image in the Internet. The analysis of the results of the research takes into account the analyzed subject and developmental conditioning of the time of adolescence in the context of sociocultural changes. Babicka-Wirkus A.

Khrushchev's speech was sharply critical of the rule of the deceased General Secretary and Premier Joseph Stalin , particularly with respect to the purges which had especially marked the last years of the s. Khrushchev charged Stalin with having fostered a leadership cult of personality despite ostensibly maintaining support for the ideals of communism. The speech was leaked to the west by the Israeli intelligence agency, Shin Bet , which received it from the Polish-Jewish journalist Wiktor Grajewski.

Он не мог понять, почему Мидж всегда права. Он не заметил отражения, мелькнувшего за оконным стеклом рядом с. Крупная фигура возникла в дверях директорского кабинета.

Why I am so very unFrench, and other essays

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Poilogfaters

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This speech would ultimately trigger a world-wide split:.

Karlotta L.

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The Thesis deals with the problem of Stalin's cult of personality.

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