File Name: he jews and masonry in the united states before 1810 .zip
- Freemasonry in Germany
- The Jews and Masonry in the United States before 1810
- The Jews and Masonry in the United States Before 1810
The Jews of Jamaica.
Du kanske gillar. Spara som favorit. Skickas inom vardagar. This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible.
Freemasonry in Germany
Page created: 20 April Latest revision or update: 21 April Thanks for the invitation to be here, the first time since Lloyd Gartner 1 died. There are few historians of whom it can be said that in effect he invented a new aspect and approach to modern Jewish history — Jewish migration and its impact upon the receiving host country. My subject tonight is in part a tribute to him in that I am going to be talking about one particular aspect of his work. Let me make clear that I do not intend to go beyond the basic first steps in Freemasonry; I am not going to discuss all the various Masonic degrees and Orders which in England are, or might be, restricted to believing Christians.
A Rite is a progressive series of degrees conferred by various Masonic organizations or bodies, each of which operates under the control of its own central authority. In the Scottish Rite the central authority is called a Supreme Council. The Scottish Rite is one of the appendant bodies of Freemasonry that a Master Mason may join for further exposure to the principles of Freemasonry. In England and some other countries, while the Scottish Rite is not accorded official recognition by the Grand Lodge, only a recognised Freemason may join and there is no prohibition against his doing so. In the United States, however, the Scottish Rite is officially recognized by Grand Lodges as an extension of the degrees of Freemasonry.
The Jews and Masonry in the United States before 1810
Freemasonry in Germany started in several places during the second quarter of the Eighteenth century. After the extinction of the Rite of Strict Observance, which had a wide following and claimed Templar origins for its higher degrees, the several Grand Lodges in Germany defied all attempts at unification, although a largely ineffectual central organisation came into being with the unification of Germany. During the s Freemasons were harassed alongside Jews by those taken in by the Protocols of the Elders of Zion , and blamed for the German surrender of This culminated with the suppression of Freemasonry by the Nazis in , with many Masons in Germany and occupied countries being executed or sent to concentration camps. Freemasonry returned to Germany after World War Two. A single central body now represents five "regular" Grand Lodges. Liberal, women's, and mixed lodges also exist.
Oct In its current form, the Masonic fraternity dates back to the founding of the Grand Lodge of England in Despite a facade of religious universality, the fraternity was often avowedly Christian in practice, but this did not prevent Jews in Europe and the American colonies who were eager for interaction with their Christian neighbors from seeking to join. Lodges in the United States did not follow suit, however, and a de-Christianization process akin to the one that occurred in England never took place in Rhode Island. Still, Jews in the United States continued to be drawn to the fraternity and its pledge of equality for all men. Nearly every Jewish Mason whose writings have survived from the nineteenth century—both in Europe and the United States—emphasized this aspect of Freemasonry above all others. Green and Hartman had likewise been instrumental in the Reform restructuring of the Sons of Israel and David.
Originally concerned with the practice of Freemasonry in London and Westminster, it soon became known as the Grand Lodge of England. The basic principles of the Grand Lodge of England were inspired by the ideal of tolerance and universal understanding of the Enlightenment and by the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century. The Grand Lodge was founded shortly after George I , the first Hanoverian king of the Kingdom of Great Britain , ascended to the throne on 1 August and the end of the first Jacobite rising of Paul's Church-yard in London and constituted themselves a Grand Lodge. The four lodges had previously met together in at the Apple-Tree Tavern, "and having put into the Chair the oldest Master Mason now the Master of a Lodge , they constituted themselves a Grand Lodge pro Tempore in due form. All four lodges were simply named after the public houses where they were accustomed to meet, at the Goose and Gridiron Ale-house in St. While the three London lodges were mainly operative lodges, the Rummer and Grapes, by the Palace of Westminster , appears to have been primarily a lodge of accepted and speculative gentlemen masons.
The Jews and Masonry in the United States Before 1810
The titles either concealed the name of the author and publication information, or openly acknowledged the fact that they were translations of classic U. The domestic production of these Masonic materials provided a boon to the struggling U. A broader picture of early American Masonry than we have known, then, can revalidate it as more than a narrow corner of U.
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Кипя от злости, тот нырнул в стремительно уплотняющуюся толпу. Он должен настичь Дэвида Беккера. Халохот отчаянно пытался протиснуться к концу улочки, но внезапно почувствовал, что тонет в этом море человеческих тел. Со всех сторон его окружали мужчины в пиджаках и галстуках и женщины в черных платьях и кружевных накидках на опущенных головах.
Но в общем хаосе их никто, похоже, не слышал. - Мы тонем! - крикнул кто-то из техников. ВР начала неистово мигать, когда ядро захлестнул черный поток. Под потолком завыли сирены. - Информация уходит.
Сьюзан, это Дэвид. Я тебя разбудил. Она улыбнулась и поудобнее устроилась в постели. - Ты мне только что приснился.
На крыше главного служебного здания АНБ вырос лес из более чем пятисот антенн, среди которых были две большие антенны, закрытые обтекателями, похожими на громадные мячи для гольфа. Само здание также было гигантских размеров - его площадь составляла более двух миллионов квадратных футов, вдвое больше площади штаб-квартиры ЦРУ. Внутри было протянуто восемь миллионов футов телефонного кабеля, общая площадь постоянно закрытых окон составляла восемьдесят тысяч квадратных футов. Сьюзан рассказала Дэвиду про КОМИ НТ, подразделение глобальной разведки, в распоряжении которого находилось немыслимое количество постов прослушивания, спутников-шпионов и подслушивающих устройств по всему земному шару. Ежедневно тысячи сообщений и разговоров перехватывались и посылались экспертам АНБ для дешифровки.