File Name: existentialism of human beings among the africans and christians .zip
Existentialism is associated with several 19th- and 20th-century European philosophers who shared an emphasis on the human subject, despite profound doctrinal differences. The main idea of existentialism during World War II was developed by Jean-Paul Sartre under the influence of Fyodor Dostoevsky and Martin Heidegger , whom he read in a POW camp and strongly influenced many disciplines besides philosophy , including theology, drama, art, literature, and psychology.
The term existentialism French : L'existentialisme was coined by the French Catholic philosopher Gabriel Marcel in the mids. Some scholars argue that the term should be used only to refer to the cultural movement in Europe in the s and s associated with the works of the philosophers Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir , Maurice Merleau-Ponty , and Albert Camus.
The labels existentialism and existentialist are often seen as historical conveniences in as much as they were first applied to many philosophers long after they had died. While existentialism is generally considered to have originated with Kierkegaard, the first prominent existentialist philosopher to adopt the term as a self-description was Sartre.
Sartre posits the idea that "what all existentialists have in common is the fundamental doctrine that existence precedes essence ," as the philosopher Frederick Copleston explains. Although many outside Scandinavia consider the term existentialism to have originated from Kierkegaard, [ who? Sibbern is supposed to have had two conversations in , the first with Welhaven and the second with Kierkegaard.
It is in the first conversation that it is believed that Welhaven came up with "a word that he said covered a certain thinking, which had a close and positive attitude to life, a relationship he described as existential".
The second claim comes from the Norwegian historian Rune Slagstad , who claims to prove that Kierkegaard himself said the term "existential" was borrowed from the poet.
He strongly believes that it was Kierkegaard himself who said that " Hegelians do not study philosophy "existentially;" to use a phrase by Welhaven from one time when I spoke with him about philosophy.
Sartre argued that a central proposition of existentialism is that existence precedes essence , which means that the most important consideration for individuals is that they are individuals—independently acting and responsible, conscious beings "existence" —rather than what labels, roles, stereotypes, definitions, or other preconceived categories the individuals fit "essence". The actual life of the individuals is what constitutes what could be called their "true essence" instead of an arbitrarily attributed essence others use to define them.
Human beings, through their own consciousness , create their own values and determine a meaning to their life. His form must be just as manifold as are the opposites that he holds together. The systematic eins, zwei, drei is an abstract form that also must inevitably run into trouble whenever it is to be applied to the concrete. To the same degree as the subjective thinker is concrete, to that same degree his form must also be concretely dialectical.
But just as he himself is not a poet, not an ethicist, not a dialectician, so also his form is none of these directly. His form must first and last be related to existence, and in this regard he must have at his disposal the poetic, the ethical, the dialectical, the religious.
Subordinate character, setting, etc. The setting is not the fairyland of the imagination, where poetry produces consummation, nor is the setting laid in England, and historical accuracy is not a concern. The setting is inwardness in existing as a human being; the concretion is the relation of the existence-categories to one another.
Historical accuracy and historical actuality are breadth. Some interpret the imperative to define oneself as meaning that anyone can wish to be anything.
However, an existentialist philosopher would say such a wish constitutes an inauthentic existence — what Sartre would call " bad faith ".
Instead, the phrase should be taken to say that people are defined only insofar as they act and that they are responsible for their actions. Someone who acts cruelly towards other people is, by that act, defined as a cruel person. Such persons are themselves responsible for their new identity cruel persons. This is opposed to their genes, or human nature , bearing the blame. As Sartre said in his lecture Existentialism is a Humanism : "man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world—and defines himself afterwards".
The more positive, therapeutic aspect of this is also implied: a person can choose to act in a different way, and to be a good person instead of a cruel person. Jonathan Webber interprets Sartre's usage of the term essence not in a modal fashion, i. Humans are different from houses because - unlike houses - they don't have an inbuilt purpose: they are free to choose their own purpose and thereby shape their essence; thus, their existence precedes their essence.
Sartre is committed to a radical conception of freedom: nothing fixes our purpose but we ourselves, our projects have no weight or inertia except for our endorsement of them. Sedimentations are themselves products of past choices and can be changed by choosing differently in the present, but such changes happen slowly. They are a force of inertia that shapes the agent's evaluative outlook on the world until the transition is complete. Sartre's definition of existentialism was based on Heidegger's magnum opus Being and Time In the correspondence with Jean Beaufret later published as the Letter on Humanism , Heidegger implied that Sartre misunderstood him for his own purposes of subjectivism, and that he did not mean that actions take precedence over being so long as those actions were not reflected upon.
The notion of the absurd contains the idea that there is no meaning in the world beyond what meaning we give it. This meaninglessness also encompasses the amorality or "unfairness" of the world.
This can be highlighted in the way it opposes the traditional Abrahamic religious perspective, which establishes that life's purpose is the fulfillment of God's commandments. To live the life of the absurd means rejecting a life that finds or pursues specific meaning for man's existence since there is nothing to be discovered. According to Albert Camus, the world or the human being is not in itself absurd.
The concept only emerges through the juxtaposition of the two; life becomes absurd due to the incompatibility between human beings and the world they inhabit. These are considered absurd since they issue from human freedom, undermining their foundation outside of themselves. The absurd contrasts with the claim that "bad things don't happen to good people"; to the world, metaphorically speaking, there is no such thing as a good person or a bad person; what happens happens, and it may just as well happen to a "good" person as to a "bad" person.
The notion of the absurd has been prominent in literature throughout history. It is because of the devastating awareness of meaninglessness that Camus claimed in The Myth of Sisyphus that "there is only one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide". Although "prescriptions" against the possible deleterious consequences of these kinds of encounters vary, from Kierkegaard's religious "stage" to Camus' insistence on persevering in spite of absurdity, the concern with helping people avoid living their lives in ways that put them in the perpetual danger of having everything meaningful break down is common to most existentialist philosophers.
The possibility of having everything meaningful break down poses a threat of quietism , which is inherently against the existentialist philosophy. The ultimate hero of absurdism lives without meaning and faces suicide without succumbing to it.
Facticity is defined by Sartre in Being and Nothingness as the in-itself , which delineates for humans the modalities of being and not being. This can be more easily understood when considering facticity in relation to the temporal dimension of our past: one's past is what one is, in that it co-constitutes oneself.
However, to say that one is only one's past would ignore a significant part of reality the present and the future , while saying that one's past is only what one was, would entirely detach it from oneself now.
A denial of one's concrete past constitutes an inauthentic lifestyle, and also applies to other kinds of facticity having a human body—e. Facticity is a limitation and a condition of freedom. It is a limitation in that a large part of one's facticity consists of things one did not choose birthplace, etc. However, even though one's facticity is "set in stone" as being past, for instance , it cannot determine a person: the value ascribed to one's facticity is still ascribed to it freely by that person.
As an example, consider two men, one of whom has no memory of his past and the other who remembers everything. Both have committed many crimes, but the first man, remembering nothing, leads a rather normal life while the second man, feeling trapped by his own past, continues a life of crime, blaming his own past for "trapping" him in this life. There is nothing essential about his committing crimes, but he ascribes this meaning to his past.
However, to disregard one's facticity during the continual process of self-making, projecting oneself into the future, would be to put oneself in denial of oneself and would be inauthentic. The origin of one's projection must still be one's facticity, though in the mode of not being it essentially. An example of one focusing solely on possible projects without reflecting on one's current facticity:  would be someone who continually thinks about future possibilities related to being rich e.
In this example, considering both facticity and transcendence, an authentic mode of being would be considering future projects that might improve one's current finances e. Another aspect of facticity is that it entails angst. Freedom "produces" angst when limited by facticity and the lack of the possibility of having facticity to "step in" and take responsibility for something one has done also produces angst. Another aspect of existential freedom is that one can change one's values. One is responsible for one's values, regardless of society's values.
The focus on freedom in existentialism is related to the limits of responsibility one bears, as a result of one's freedom. The relationship between freedom and responsibility is one of interdependency and a clarification of freedom also clarifies that for which one is responsible. Many noted existentialists consider the theme of authentic existence important.
Authenticity involves the idea that one has to "create oneself" and live in accordance with this self. For an authentic existence, one should act as oneself, not as "one's acts" or as "one's genes" or any other essence requires. The authentic act is one in accordance with one's freedom. A component of freedom is facticity, but not to the degree that this facticity determines one's transcendent choices one could then blame one's background for making the choice one made [chosen project, from one's transcendence].
Facticity, in relation to authenticity, involves acting on one's actual values when making a choice instead of, like Kierkegaard's Aesthete, "choosing" randomly , so that one takes responsibility for the act instead of choosing either-or without allowing the options to have different values. In contrast, the inauthentic is the denial to live in accordance with one's freedom. This can take many forms, from pretending choices are meaningless or random, convincing oneself that some form of determinism is true, or "mimicry" where one acts as "one should".
How one "should" act is often determined by an image one has, of how one in such a role bank manager, lion tamer, prostitute, etc acts. In Being and Nothingness , Sartre uses the example of a waiter in "bad faith".
He merely takes part in the "act" of being a typical waiter, albeit very convincingly. The main point is the attitude one takes to one's own freedom and responsibility and the extent to which one acts in accordance with this freedom. The Other written with a capital "O" is a concept more properly belonging to phenomenology and its account of intersubjectivity. However, it has seen widespread use in existentialist writings, and the conclusions drawn differ slightly from the phenomenological accounts.
The Other is the experience of another free subject who inhabits the same world as a person does. In its most basic form, it is this experience of the Other that constitutes intersubjectivity and objectivity. To clarify, when one experiences someone else, and this Other person experiences the world the same world that a person experiences —only from "over there"—the world is constituted as objective in that it is something that is "there" as identical for both of the subjects; a person experiences the other person as experiencing the same things.
This experience of the Other's look is what is termed the Look sometimes the Gaze. While this experience, in its basic phenomenological sense, constitutes the world as objective and oneself as objectively existing subjectivity one experiences oneself as seen in the Other's Look in precisely the same way that one experiences the Other as seen by him, as subjectivity , in existentialism, it also acts as a kind of limitation of freedom.
This is because the Look tends to objectify what it sees. When one experiences oneself in the Look, one does not experience oneself as nothing no thing , but as something.
In Sartre's example of a man peeping at someone through a keyhole, the man is entirely caught up in the situation he is in. He is in a pre-reflexive state where his entire consciousness is directed at what goes on in the room. Suddenly, he hears a creaking floorboard behind him and he becomes aware of himself as seen by the Other.
He is then filled with shame for he perceives himself as he would perceive someone else doing what he was doing - as a Peeping Tom. For Sartre, this phenomenological experience of shame establishes proof for the existence of other minds and defeats the problem of solipsism. For the conscious state of shame to be experienced, one has to become aware of oneself as an object of another look, proving a priori, that other minds exist.
Religion and Globalization: New Possibilities, Furthering Challenges
Christian existentialism is a theo-philosophical movement which takes an existentialist approach to Christian theology. Christian existentialism relies on Kierkegaard's understanding of Christianity. Kierkegaard argued that the universe is fundamentally paradoxical , and that its greatest paradox is the transcendent union of God and humans in the person of Jesus Christ. He also posited having a personal relationship with God that supersedes all prescribed moralities, social structures and communal norms,  since he asserted that following social conventions is essentially a personal aesthetic choice made by individuals. Kierkegaard proposed that each person must make independent choices, which then constitute their existence. Each person suffers from the anguish of indecision whether knowingly or unknowingly until they commit to a particular choice about the way to live.
The joy of the gospel . A joy ever new, a joy which is shared . The delightful and comforting joy of evangelizing . Eternal newness .
Existentialism , any of various philosophies, most influential in continental Europe from about to the midth century, that have in common an interpretation of human existence in the world that stresses its concreteness and its problematic character. According to existentialism: 1 Existence is always particular and individual—always my existence, your existence, his existence, her existence. With respect to the first point, that existence is particular, existentialism is opposed to any doctrine that views human beings as the manifestation of an absolute or of an infinite substance. It is thus opposed to most forms of idealism , such as those that stress Consciousness , Spirit, Reason, Idea, or Oversoul.
The ethics of a society is embedded in the ideas and beliefs about what is right or wrong, what is a good or bad character; it is also embedded in the conceptions of satisfactory social relations and attitudes held by the members of the society; it is embedded, furthermore, in the forms or patterns of behavior that are considered by the members of the society to bring about social harmony and cooperative living, justice, and fairness.
Home Links Jokes Other Courses. Existentialism [The following material includes parts of a lecture delivered by TA Andrew Irvine in Existentialism can be thought of as the twentieth-century analogue of nineteenth-century romanticism. The two movements have in common the demand that the whole fabric of life be recognized and taken into account in our thinking and acting. As such they express a form of resistance to reductionist analyses of life and its meaning for human beings. But there are also significant differences. Existentialism is typically focused on individual human lives and the poignant inevitability of suffering and choice for each individual whereas romanticism tended to be more oriented to the whole of nature and saw human beings as a part of that wider picture.
The philosophical career of Jean Paul Sartre focuses, in its first phase, upon the construction of a philosophy of existence known as existentialism. Adopting and adapting the methods of phenomenology, Sartre sets out to develop an ontological account of what it is to be human. The main features of this ontology are the groundlessness and radical freedom which characterize the human condition. These are contrasted with the unproblematic being of the world of things. So the unity of the self is understood as a task for the for-itself rather than as a given. Our only way to escape self-deception is authenticity, that is, choosing in a way which reveals the existence of the for-itself as both factual and transcendent.
Existentialism is associated with several 19th- and 20th-century European philosophers who shared an emphasis on the human subject, despite profound doctrinal differences. The main idea of existentialism during World War II was developed by Jean-Paul Sartre under the influence of Fyodor Dostoevsky and Martin Heidegger , whom he read in a POW camp and strongly influenced many disciplines besides philosophy , including theology, drama, art, literature, and psychology. The term existentialism French : L'existentialisme was coined by the French Catholic philosopher Gabriel Marcel in the mids. Some scholars argue that the term should be used only to refer to the cultural movement in Europe in the s and s associated with the works of the philosophers Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir , Maurice Merleau-Ponty , and Albert Camus. The labels existentialism and existentialist are often seen as historical conveniences in as much as they were first applied to many philosophers long after they had died. While existentialism is generally considered to have originated with Kierkegaard, the first prominent existentialist philosopher to adopt the term as a self-description was Sartre. Sartre posits the idea that "what all existentialists have in common is the fundamental doctrine that existence precedes essence ," as the philosopher Frederick Copleston explains.
Я сделал это ради нас обоих. Мы созданы друг для друга.
Кабинет номер 9А197. Директорские апартаменты. В этот субботний вечер в Коридоре красного дерева было пусто, все служащие давно разошлись по домам, чтобы предаться излюбленным развлечениям влиятельных людей.
Что вы имеете в виду. - Да он смеялся над нами. Это же анаграмма.
Мне больно! - задыхаясь, крикнула Сьюзан. Она судорожно ловила ртом воздух, извиваясь в руках Хейла. Он хотел было отпустить ее и броситься к лифту Стратмора, но это было бы чистым безумием: все равно он не знает кода.