File Name: encyclopedia of the modern middle east and north africa map.zip
For most of its modern history, the Middle East has been besieged by international conflicts. Almost two centuries later, the region finds itself embattled in another round of intense crises in which both super and regional powers compete for territorial influence. The once stable region became an arena for violence in the aftermath of the popular uprisings of the s, and what started as peaceful demands for democracy and freedom soon metamorphosed into civil and regional wars in many areas.
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Pakistan 's historical links with the Middle East go back to the Arab invasion of Sindh in c. The Arab — Islamic and Iranian cultures have deeply influenced the civilization of the areas that now comprise Pakistan.
Contemporary geopolitical considerations have reinforced Pakistan's interest in the Arab region. For security as well as religious reasons, Pakistan has attached great significance to its relations with the Arab Islamic states.
The perception of a security threat from India and their dispute over Kashmir have impelled Pakistan to look toward the Islamic countries as "natural allies. Instead, Pakistan's decision to join the U. Archrival India found the political climate in the radical Arab states more congenial for its diplomacy. Pakistan's relationship with the West brought it closer to Iran , Turkey , and pro-West moderate Arab states.
In response to declining U. As an alternative to dwindling Western support, Pakistan began to look toward the Arab oil-producing countries for economic assistance. Under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Iran became an important regional ally and also a source of much-needed foreign aid. Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states showed tremendous interest in Pakistan's security and economic development. With the manifold increase in oil revenues, the Gulf region became more attractive for Pakistan as a market for its surplus manpower.
Millions of Pakistanis have worked on developmental projects in the Gulf countries. The Pakistani workers abroad not only have lessened the pressure on unemployment at home but also have earned the country tens of billions of dollars.
In the peak years — , Pakistani workers remitted about three billion U. While Pakistan has unilaterally and unconditionally supported the Arab states in their disputes with Israel, including a Palestinian homeland, it has not received unanimous political backing of all the Middle Eastern countries in its disputes with India.
In pursuit of bilateralism, Pakistan has carefully avoided taking sides in conflicts between the Muslim states. In the Iran — Iraq War in the s, Pakistan remained strictly neutral.
Pakistan's participation in Operation Desert Storm against Iraq in was a different matter. It was launched under the United Nations banner, and the coalition of Western and Arab states enjoyed broader legitimacy in forcing Iraqi invaders from Kuwait.
Over the years, Pakistan has emerged as an important regional actor in the Middle East, although it maintains a low profile. It has security protocols with a large number of Middle Eastern states. Also, Libya had access to these facilities in the s. Pakistani military personnel serve in various capacities as trainers and advisers for Arab armies.
In the s, Pakistan stationed about 10, of its troops in Saudi Arabia. As a quid pro quo, Saudi Arabia financed the modernization of Pakistan's air force.
In the latter part of the twentieth century, among developing countries, Pakistan had the second largest military presence overseas after Cuba — all of it was in the Middle East. Burke, S. Karachi: Oxford University Press, Rizvi, Hasan-Askari. New York : St. Martin's, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. March 3, Retrieved March 03, from Encyclopedia.
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Learn more about citation styles Citation styles Encyclopedia. More From encyclopedia. Arabs comprise less than one-quarter of the world's 1. Lebanese Muslims… Pan-arabism , Also known as Arab nationalism, pan-Arabism is the ideology that calls for the political unity of Arab peoples and states. By consensus, Arabness is… Palestinian Americans , by Ken Kurson Overview Historical Palestine stretched from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea to lands east of the Jordan River, according to… Arabic Languages , Arabic languages, members of the West Semitic group of the Semitic subdivision of the Afroasiatic family of languages see Afroasiatic languages.
Th… Arab-israeli Wars , the first conflict between the arabs and the new state of israel. The Arab—Israel war of culminated half a century of conflict between the Arab…. Speech to the Officers' Club. Arab—Latin American Relations. Background of the Conflict. Nationalism: Arab. Pakington, Dorothy d. Pakhomova, Ludmila d. Pakholchik, Olena —. Pakhmutova, Alexandra Nikolaievna. Pakhmutova, Alexandra —. Pakhalina, Yulia —. Pakenham, Thomas Pakenham, Sir Edward Michael. Pak, Se Ri —. Pak Thai.
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History - African & Middle Eastern
Pakistan 's historical links with the Middle East go back to the Arab invasion of Sindh in c. The Arab — Islamic and Iranian cultures have deeply influenced the civilization of the areas that now comprise Pakistan. Contemporary geopolitical considerations have reinforced Pakistan's interest in the Arab region. For security as well as religious reasons, Pakistan has attached great significance to its relations with the Arab Islamic states. The perception of a security threat from India and their dispute over Kashmir have impelled Pakistan to look toward the Islamic countries as "natural allies.
Pakistan and the Middle East
North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt 's Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. Varying sources have limited it to the countries of Algeria , Libya , Morocco , and Tunisia , a region that was known by the French during colonial times as "Afrique du Nord" and is known by Arabs as the Maghreb "West", The western part of Arab World.
Middle East Studies
The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East as opposed to the Far East beginning in the early 20th century. The term "Middle East" has led to some confusion over its changing definitions. Most Middle Eastern countries 13 out of 18 are part of the Arab world. The most populous countries in the region are Egypt, Iran , and Turkey, while Saudi Arabia is the largest Middle Eastern country by area. The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times , with the geopolitical importance of the region being recognized for millennia. The Middle East generally has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia Iraq , Kuwait , and eastern Syria , and most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent.
Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work on major ancient and modern cities in the Middle East and North Africa from their beginnings to today. In an unprecedented work of historical research, renowned experts Bruce Stanley and Michael Dumper provide 5, years of authoritative historical coverage as they trace the full trajectory of each city, discuss ties to other cities, and present a comparative analysis of the region through the lens of its cities. Introductory essays explore urban general history and historiography, urban planning and modernization, poverty, interaction between cities, social welfare, culture, identity issues, and the place of these cities within the world economy.
[EPUB] Political. Encyclopedia Of The Middle. East. If you ally craving such a referred Political Encyclopedia of the. Middle East book Modern Middle East: D-K- East and North Africa—from 8 maps including an overview.
Middle East , the lands around the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea , encompassing at least the Arabian Peninsula and, by some definitions, Iran , North Africa , and sometimes beyond. The central part of this general area was formerly called the Near East , a name given to it by some of the first modern Western geographers and historians, who tended to divide what they called the Orient into three regions. The change in usage began to evolve prior to World War II and tended to be confirmed during that war, when the term Middle East was given to the British military command in Egypt. Subsequent events have tended, in loose usage, to enlarge the number of lands included in the definition. The three North African countries of Tunisia , Algeria , and Morocco are closely connected in sentiment and foreign policy with the Arab states. In addition, geographic factors often require statesmen and others to take account of Afghanistan and Pakistan in connection with the affairs of the Middle East. Occasionally, Greece is included in the compass of the Middle East because the Middle Eastern then Near Eastern question in its modern form first became apparent when the Greeks rose in rebellion to assert their independence of the Ottoman Empire in see Eastern Question.
Быть может, я смогу его узнать. - Ну… - произнес голос. - Он очень, очень полный. Ролдан сразу понял. Он хорошо запомнил это обрюзгшее лицо. Человек, к которому он направил Росио. Странно, подумал он, что сегодня вечером уже второй человек интересуется этим немцем.
Стратмор был блестящими программистом-криптографом, но его диапазон был ограничен работой с алгоритмами и тонкости этой не столь уж изощренной и устаревшей технологии программирования часто от него ускользали. К тому же Сьюзан написала свой маячок на новом гибридном языке, именуемом LIMBO, поэтому не приходилось удивляться, что Стратмор с ним не справился. - Я возьму это на себя, - улыбнулась она, вставая. - Буду у своего терминала. - Как ты думаешь, сколько времени это займет. - Ну… - задумалась Сьюзан.
Я вызвал скорую. Беккер вспомнил синеватый шрам на груди Танкадо. - Быть может, искусственное дыхание делали санитары.
- Она наклонилась к микрофону и четко произнесла: - Сьюзан Флетчер. Компьютер немедленно распознал частоту ее голоса, и дверь, щелкнув, открылась. Сьюзан проследовала. Охранник залюбовался Сьюзан, шедшей по бетонной дорожке. Он обратил внимание, что сегодня взгляд ее карих глаз казался отсутствующим, но на щеках играл свежий румянец, а рыжеватые до плеч волосы были только что высушены.