File Name: seats votes and the spatial organization of elections .zip
Electoral geography is the analysis of the methods, the behavior, and the results of elections in the context of geographic space and using geographical techniques.
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- Elections and Voting Data Guide: United States (U.S.) and International
Two principal tactics are used in gerrymandering: "cracking" i. In addition to its use achieving desired electoral results for a particular party, gerrymandering may be used to help or hinder a particular demographic , such as a political, ethnic, racial, linguistic, religious, or class group, such as in Northern Ireland where boundaries were constructed to guarantee Protestant Unionist majorities. Wayne Dawkins describes it as politicians picking their voters instead of voters picking their politicians;  Thomas Hofeller , the Redistricting Chair of the Republican National Committee , stated "Redistricting is like an election in reverse.
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The socio-cultural diversity in India has a specific geographical patterning, which explains the fragmented nature of India polity. The elections reveal that a high degree of political fragmentation is existing in India because of multiplicity of political parties and the dynamic allegiance of the masses to various political parties. So, winning of seats by a particular party does not necessarily shows its real strength. By keeping this context in view, an effort has been made in the present paper to answer the following questions: What are the major areas of support for various parties? Whether the supporting areas of different parties are concentrated in specific regions or evenly distributed throughout India?
Synonyms: mail ballot , postal ballot. Voting that can occur unsupervised at a location chosen by the voter either before or on election day. Synonyms: all-mail voting , mail voting , postal voting , vote-by-mail. Examination of a voting system and by the purchasing election jurisdiction to validate:. Measurable characteristics that indicate the degree to which a system is available to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities. The most common disabilities include those associated with vision, hearing, mobility, and cognition. Formal recognition that a laboratory is competent to carry out specific tests or calibrations.
This article studies voters and parties, beginning with realignment or dealignment in the party-voter nexus. It discusses changes in the policy preferences of voters and even organizational changes to the party-voter linkage. Electoral competition, performance of traditional parties, and organizational change are discussed as well. This article determines that there are two parallel trends in the linkage between parties and voters. The first is that voters are showing weaker partisan identification with political parties, and a widening gap between the policy preferences of voters and the electoral manifestos of parties is apparent. The second trend is that improvements in educational attainment and innovations in media technology are strengthening the political capability of both parties and voters. Keywords: voters , parties , party-voter nexus , policy preferences , organizational changes , party-voter linkage , electoral competition , traditional parties , partisan identification , electoral manifestos.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Johnston and D. Rossiter and Charles Pattie and D. Johnston , D.
Elections and Voting Data Guide: United States (U.S.) and International
More specifically, it discusses whether electoral systems influence the diversity of party policy positions, measured via the degree of party system polarization. The review of theoretical arguments suggests that any effects of proportionality on polarization should be modest, a prediction supported by empirical studies that identify only weak and inconsistent relationships between proportionality and party polarization along the left—right ideological dimension. Keywords: parties , polarization , policies , electoral systems , representation. More specifically, we discuss whether electoral systems influence the diversity of party policy positions, measured via the degree of party system polarization.
Fundamental changes are taking place in democratic political systems…stable party alignments are fragmenting, and the traditional sociopsychological bonds between voters and parties are weakening… Dalton, Beck, and Flanagan 5. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Political Geography Quarterly 3, —
Мысли ее смешались. Хоть бы замолчала эта омерзительная сирена. Почему Стратмор отмел такую возможность. Хейл извивался на полу, стараясь увидеть, чем занята Сьюзан. - Что .
- Теперь это не имеет значения. У вас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Стратмор пожал плечами. - Отсюда я не в состоянии ему помочь - ему придется полагаться лишь на. А потом, я не хочу говорить по линии, не защищенной от прослушивания. Глаза Сьюзан расширились. - Как прикажете это понимать.
Стратмор подался вперед и повернул к Сьюзан монитор компьютера. На черном поле светилось небольшое желтое окно, на котором виднелись две строчки: ВРЕМЯ ПОИСКА: 15:09:33 ИСКОМЫЙ ШИФР: Сьюзан недоуменно смотрела на экран.
Хейл удивленно поднял брови. - Ах какие мы скрытные. А ведь у нас в Третьем узле нет друг от друга секретов. Один за всех и все за одного.
Ясно, конечно, что это никакой не полицейский, это Клиент с большой буквы. - Дайте мне угадать: наш номер вам дал приятель. Сказал, чтобы вы обязательно нам позвонили.