File Name: building access universal design and the politics of disability .zip
Building Access: Universal Design and the Politics of Disability
Universal Design. TDM Encyclopedia. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Updated 6 September This chapter discusses ways to design transportation systems to meet the widest possible range of needs, including those of people with disabilities.
Universal Design also called Inclusive Design , Accessible Design or just Accessibility refers to transport facilities and services designs that accommodate the widest range of potential users, including people with mobility and visual impairments disabilities and other special needs. Although Universal Design standards address the needs of people with disabilities, it is a comprehensive concept that can benefit all users. For example, people who are unusually short or tall, carrying packages or pushing a cart are not disabled, but their needs should be considered in facility design.
Increased walkway widths, low-floor buses and smooth walking surfaces improve convenience for all travelers, not just those with mobility impairments. Curb ramps are important for people using handcarts, scooters, baby strollers and bicycles, as well as wheelchair users. Automatic door openers are another example of Universal Design features that can benefit many types of users.
Universal design should be comprehensive, meaning that it results in seamless mobility options from origin to destination for the greatest possible range of potential users. It should consider all possible obstacles that may exist in buildings, transportation terminals, sidewalks, paths, roads and vehicles.
Information on these standards is available from the Access Board www. The City of New Delhi established Pedestrian Design Guidelines UTTIPEC which require that sidewalks, crosswalks and other pedestrian facilities incorporate features such as curb cuts and adequate widths to accommodate wheelchairs and other special needs.
Concepts and Terminology. Universal Design shifts more of the burden from the individual to the community; rather than assuming that people must accommodate to the built environment, it assumes that the built environment should accommodate all users as much as feasible.
Below are some terms used for Universal Design. Impairment — a difference or constraint in the way a body functions. Disability — a limitation in they way daily functions can be performed in a community as a result of an impairment. Disabled — a person with a disability.
Handicapped — is a limitation of function imposed by the beliefs of the community. Some people consider this term somewhat derogatory and its use is discouraged. Accessibility or just Access can refer to facilities that accommodate people with disabilities. Accessibility also has broader meanings, referring to the general ability to reach desired goods, services and activities.
Universal Design can be implemented as part of a facility design process, pedestrian planning, transportation planning, or as a special process. It can be implemented by professional organizations to help educate designers and other decision-makers about Universal Design concepts and standards , facility designers and managers, and by various levels of governments, to establish Universal Design standards and projects.
It should generally include user surveys to identify demands, needs and preferences. Universal Design usually involves improving transportation facilities and services to remove barriers to people with disabilities. It can increase use of pedestrian facilities and public transit services, and reduce the need for automobile chauffeuring trips and paratransit services. Travel surveys indicate that people with disabilities make significantly fewer trips than comparable non-disabled people, indicating latent demand for mobility Brumbaugh Shifts peak to off-peak periods.
Shifts automobile travel to alternative modes. Can reduce the need for chauffeuring and paratransit trips. Improves land-use accessibility, reduces the need for automobile travel. Makes destinations directly accessible by walking and wheelchair.
Universal Design often involves improving public transit. Some Universal Design features improve cycling conditions. Universal Design can significantly improve pedestrian conditions.
Rating from 3 very beneficial to —3 very harmful. A 0 indicates no impact or mixed impacts. Benefits include improved Transportation Options and Basic Mobility , particularly for people with mobility and visual impairments, and those who use strollers and handcarts.
Universal Design standards help reduce pedestrian falls, and create a more convenient and safer pedestrian network for all users. It increases transportation system Resilience. Design allows people with disabilities to participate fully in society, including improved education and employment opportunities that increase economic productivity, and reduces the need for special services such as paratransit and chauffeured automobile trips.
By improving mobility options it tends to increase Public Health. Costs include the resource costs and design constraints associated with meeting Universal Design requirements. Casullo identifies various legal requirements and benefits of improving universal access to public transportation. Pratt discusses the incremental costs of special mobility services.
If pedestrian and transit budgets are fixed, Universal Design requirements may reduce expenditures on other mobility services. Increases costs for parking and pedestrian facilities. Can provide savings and increase employment opportunities by improving mobility for people with disabilities.
Universal Design can benefit all users. It gives people with physical impairments better mobility and Accessibility opportunities, making them less disadvantaged comparable with non-disabled. It often requires subsidies. It benefits many people with low-incomes, and so tends to be progressive. It is essential for Basic Mobility.
Allows people with disabilities mobility opportunities comparable to non-disabled. Individuals bear the costs they impose. Progressive with respect to income. Often benefits lower-income people. Benefits transportation disadvantaged. Universal Design can be implemented in any geographic region, and by most organizations. Ratings range from 0 not appropriate to 3 very appropriate.
It improves Accessibility , provides Basic Mobility , and supports Livability objectives. Universal Design can be considered when Evaluating Nonmotorized Transportation. Barriers include a lack of information and education for transportation professionals and facility designers, and limited resources. Any policies that undervalue transportation choice, pedestrian improvements or transportation equity tend to reduce implementation of Universal Design. Wit and Humor. Are there seeing eye humans for blind dogs?
Various guides and standards listed below provide specific information on Universal Design designs. Best practices include:. Those are some of the lessons we learned recently when our year-old son Graham had his foot in a cast, due to a minor injury. Although he could walk with crutches, this was slow and difficult, so we rented a wheelchair for a weekend.
It was an excellent learning experience for us all. A preteen can have a lot of fun with a wheelchair, especially going down a steady incline of course, our 8-year-old enjoyed riding it too. But it can also be hard work. Our wheelchair user appreciated getting a push, especially when going uphill or over rough surfaces, but only when HE asked. Lesson: no unsolicited help to people with disabilities. Sitting in a wheelchair puts you at belly-button height to most other people. Lesson: sit down and maintain eye contact when conversing with somebody in a wheelchair.
We really appreciated the many public facilities that are accessible to wheelchairs, including sidewalks, shops, museums and especially the Elsie King Trail at Francis King Park, which allows wheelchair users to enjoy a forest stroll. Lesson: many destinations and experiences we take for granted, such as visiting wilderness, can be difficult for people with mobility constraints.
We also found many barriers, some of which we would not normally notice. Just one street crossing that lacks a suitable curbcut is a major barrier. A six-inch curb may as well be a six-foot cliff when you are pushing yourself in a wheelchair.
The result is islands of accessibility. People with disabilities can travel within an area, but may have trouble getting from one area to another. Lesson: an accessible transport network is only as good as its weakest link.
We had relatively little problem getting around in town, since Graham could hobble short distances including up-and-down stairs, and in-and-out of cars , and he had two parents and a brother to give a push when needed. But other wheelchair users are less lucky. There is a huge range of personal mobility constraints and needs, ranging from mild to severe. A facility designed to handle wheelchair users is also suitable for people who have trouble with stairs, pushing a stroller, or pulling a handcart.
People with disabilities and cyclists share many concerns. We want streets and paths that are well maintained, without cracks that can catch a wheel. We value having curb cuts and ramps, and wide, smooth surface recreational paths separated from motor vehicle traffic. Wheelchair design has evolved considerably in the last few years by incorporating components similar to those used on high-quality bicycles, including frames built of exotic metals, and lightweight wheels. A state-of-the-art wheelchair deserves as much admiration as you would give the latest racing bike.
The Nordic Council on Disability Policy sponsored a competition among Scandinavian cities and town to create the most accessible and inclusive community.
The book opens with a micro-travel log from four sites that employ various interpretations of Universal Design: the Blusson Spinal Cord Centre in Vancouver, with a ceremonial ramp winding around an oblong atrium; the Institute for Human Centered Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In.
Commonly understood in terms of curb cuts, automatic doors, Braille signs, and flexible kitchens, Universal Design purported to create a built environment for everyone, not only the average citizen. But who counts as "everyone," Aimi Hamraie asks, and how can designers know? Blending technoscience studies and design history with critical disability, race, and feminist theories, Building Access interrogates the historical, cultural, and theoretical contexts for these questions, offering a groundbreaking critical history of Universal Design. Hamraie reveals that the twentieth-century shift from "design for the average" to "design for all" took place through liberal political, economic, and scientific structures concerned with defining the disabled user and designing in its name. Tracing the co-evolution of accessible design for disabled veterans, a radical disability maker movement, disability rights law, and strategies for diversifying the architecture profession, Hamraie shows that Universal Design was not just an approach to creating new products or spaces, but also a sustained, understated activist movement challenging dominant understandings of disability in architecture, medicine, and society. Illustrated with a wealth of rare archival materials, Building Access brings together scientific, social, and political histories in what is not only the pioneering critical account of Universal Design but also a deep engagement with the politics of knowing, making, and belonging in twentieth-century United States. Aimi Hamraie.
Framed by the stairs in a striking image, these public bodies communicate what signs and chants alone cannot: Read Online · Download PDF. Save. Cite this.
Coming soon. Rich with archival images, the first critical history of the Universal Design movement. Illustrated with a wealth of rare archival materials, this book brings together scientific, social, and political histories in what is not only the pioneering critical account of Universal Design but also a deep engagement with the politics of knowing, making, and belonging in twentieth-century United States.
From the earliest formations of a disability rights movement in the 20 th -century West, design played a part, from the demand for greater accessibility to the invention and re-invention of graphic symbols to represent disability in public. There have been fairly few scholarly assessments of design and designers within Disability History and Disability Studies, however. A recent anthology edited by the architectural historian Jos Boys collected the scope of the field as it exists Boys, , revealing an interdisciplinary engagement but still much work to do. These two new books cover for the first time in detail the ways in which design became significant to disability discourse in the 20 th century. In both cases, the authors situate legal and activist shifts toward inclusive design within longer histories of disability in visual and scientific cultures. Their thorough research and critical framing promise to alter the terms by which we assess access, universal design, and the mis-fits between disabled persons and the designed world. Of these two books, Hamraie's is the more deeply rooted in discourses of Disability Studies.
Building Access investigates twentieth-century strategies for designing the world with disability in mind. Illustrated with a wealth of rare archival materials, this book brings together scientific, social, and political histories in what is not only the pioneering critical account of Universal Design but also a deep engagement with the politics of knowing, making, and belonging in twentieth-century United States. Forgot password? Don't have an account? All Rights Reserved.
Commonly understood in terms of curb cuts, automatic doors, Braille signs, and flexible kitchens, Universal Design purported to create a built environment for everyone, not only the average citizen. Blending technoscience studies and design history with critical disability, race, and feminist theories, Building Access interrogates the historical, cultural, and theoretical contexts for these questions, offering a groundbreaking critical history of Universal Design. Tracing the co-evolution of accessible design for disabled veterans, a radical disability maker movement, disability rights law, and strategies for diversifying the architecture profession, Hamraie shows that Universal Design was not just an approach to creating new products or spaces, but also a sustained, understated activist movement challenging dominant understandings of disability in architecture, medicine, and society.