Structure And Properties Of Aluminium And Its Alloys Pdf

structure and properties of aluminium and its alloys pdf

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With the growth of aluminum within the welding fabrication industry, and its acceptance as an excellent alternative to steel for many applications, there are increasing requirements for those involved with developing aluminum projects to become more familiar with this group of materials. The wrought and cast aluminums have different systems of identification.

The data contained on this website has been compiled by United Aluminum. The data should be thoroughly evaluated and tested by technically skilled personnel before any use is made thereof. United Aluminum assumes no responsibility or liability for any use of this data and no warranties are given or implied by United Aluminum. By accessing this Website or any pages herein, you indicate that you have read this Agreement, understand it, and agree to be bound by its Terms and Conditions. Aluminum alloys for sheet products are identified by a four-digit numerical system which is administered by the Aluminum Association.

Chemical Composition and Properties of Aluminum Alloys

Aluminium Alloys and Composites. Aluminum is a metal of great importance because of its excellent corrosion resistance, high electrical and thermal conductivity, good reflectivity and very good recycling characteristics.

There are nine different series of aluminum, which will be discussed later in this section, four of which are referred to as heat-treatable aluminum alloys, and these alloys are so-called because of the potential to increase the mechanical properties by precipitation strengthening [ 1 , 2 ]. The properties of heat treatable Al-alloys can be further enhanced by the inclusion of a reinforcing phase that increases the mechanical properties of the overall composite.

Metal matrix composites MMC are usually manmade materials that consist of two or more distinct phases; a continuous metallic phase the matrix and a secondary reinforcing phase. The secondary phase may take the form of continuous or discontinuous reinforcement as particles or fibers.

When this phase is introduced into the matrix the overall impact is an improvement of the mechanical properties of the material [ 3 ]. The properties of MMCs are comparatively superior to those of the unreinforced alloys [ 4 , 5 ]. The properties of discontinuously reinforced aluminum MMCs containing particles or short fibers are modest compared to the continuous fiber reinforced MMCs, however, these materials are less expensive to fabricate and have more flexibility in production making them more cost-effective [ 6 , 7 , 8 ].

The reinforcements used in fabricating the composites are dependent on the desired material properties, ease of processing, and part fabrication. The quality of the bond is dependent on adequate interaction between the reinforcement and the matrix.

Over the last two decade, the application of nano and micro-sized ceramics such as alumina Al 2 O 3 , MgO nanoparticle [ 9 ], boron carbide [ 10 ] and silicon carbide SiC [ 11 ] to aluminum metal matrix composites have become popular reinforcing phases, since these hard phases can lead to an increase in flow stress from the matrix by load transfer across a strong interface from the matrix to the reinforcement [ 12 ].

An example of the typical microstructure of a particle reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite is presented in Figure 1 and shows an Al 2 O 3 particulate reinforced Al MMC. The properties of these reinforcements include high strength, high modulus of elasticity and high thermal and electrical resistance.

The constraint imposed by the ceramic reinforcements on the plastic deformation of the matrix is large tensile hydrostatic stresses. Recently, researchers have explored the use of graphene as a reinforcing phase within an aluminum metal matrix as a method of improving the mechanical properties of the composite [ 13 ]. The results of the study showed that the hardness, tensile strength, and ductility of the aluminum-graphene composite were approximately 2—3 times higher than the properties of the unreinforced aluminum alloys.

The authors also demonstrated that the enhancements of the mechanical properties of the aluminum-graphene composite were proportional to the concentration of graphene added. Al-MMCs are used extensively in industries such as aerospace, automotive, sports goods, and marine. Numerous processes have been investigated for producing aluminum MMC. These include various casting techniques [ 17 ] and powder metallurgy approaches [ 18 ]. Currently, several additive manufacturing techniques are used to develop rapidly deposit aluminum alloys and composites [ 19 , 20 ].

From the list available additive manufacturing techniques; selective laser melting SLM , and wire arc additive manufacturing have shown the greatest promise for producing aluminum alloys and composites [ 19 , 21 ]. Aluminum is a nonferrous and relatively low-cost material with a high strength to weight ratio. These characteristics make aluminum alloys and composites very attractive and competitive structural materials in several industries. For applications requiring greater mechanical strength, aluminum is alloyed with metals such as copper, zinc, magnesium, and manganese.

The alloying components determine the series assigned to the aluminum alloy. The possible series categories range from 1xxx to 9xxx. Aluminum alloys can be further divided into two categories: heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable alloys. Heat-treatable alloys are those in which strength is developed by precipitation hardening [ 22 ]. These alloys are found in the 2xxx aluminum-copper , 6xxx aluminum-magnesium-silicon , and 7xxx aluminum-zinc-magnesium series [ 23 ].

In non-heat-treatable alloys, strength is developed mainly by solid solution strengthening and strain hardening. The 2xxx series which consists of Al-Cu is a heat-treatable alloy that strengthens due to the precipitation of copper aluminides within the aluminum matrix [ 23 ]. Ternary systems of Al-Mg-Si and Al-Mg-Zn which are found in the 6xxx or 7xxx series respectively are other heat treatable aluminum alloys that are used in many applications within the aerospace and automobile industries.

The high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance of heat-treatable aluminum alloys make them a very attractive class of materials. The phase diagrams presented in Figure 3 show the relationship between temperature and composition for the 6xxx series.

The research on aluminum alloys and composites has seen substantial development in several new methods of fabricating components using aluminum as the base metal and combining the metal with new forms of reinforcements for various new applications.

In a recent study, it was demonstrated that a 3D self-assembly of aluminum nanoparticle can be used for plasmon-enhanced solar desalination and [ 24 ].

Table 1 shows a summary of the properties of various heat treatable aluminum alloys. These properties justify the pervasive use of aluminum in automotive, aerospace and explosive mixtures for underwater propulsion. Among the available aluminum alloys, the 2xxx series, 6xxx series, and 7xxx series are used frequently in the aerospace and defense sectors, transportation, automotive, medical appliances, dental implants, sports, mobile phones, etc.

Typical properties of some heat treatable aluminum alloys [ 5 ]. Given the high strength-to-weight ratio and low melting temperature of aluminum, this material is used to fabricate various near-net-shape complex structures by additive manufacturing. As the technology matures for depositing aluminum alloys will focus on process optimization to remove weaknesses such as oxide film formation on the surface of the metal powder, improve thermodynamic stability of the aluminum oxide and reduce the difficulty of finding low melting point binders to be used with aluminum powders [ 27 , 28 , 29 ].

The technique demonstrated the potential of rapidly depositing large metal structures [ 30 ]; however, there is still the need for further development to optimized materials properties, surface texture and internal defects within the components produced.

The development of new aluminum alloys and composites is expected to continue to lower production costs and increasing the strength-weight ratio. These improvements in the properties of MMCs have made these materials important alternatives to traditional materials for high-temperature applications. Increasingly, aluminum MMCs containing SiC are used in engines engine block and pistons , drive shafts and disc brakes including rail type.

It has been reported in the scientific literature that when MMCs are used to make drive-shafts the increase in stiffness, increases the maximum attainable rotation. The application of aluminum MMCs to the construction of pistons is one of the most significant developments in the automotive industry.

In the electronics industry, the new generation of advanced integrated circuits generates more heat than previous types given the increase processing power. Therefore, the dissipation of heat has become a major concern. Thermal fatigue may also occur due to a small mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the silicon substrate and the heat sink.

These problems can be solved by using MMCs with matching coefficients e. This is possible because the coefficient of thermal expansion is dependent upon the volume fraction of the fibers or particles added. Components produced using Al-MMCs are not only significantly lighter than those produced from aluminum metal alloys, but they provide significant cost savings through net-shape manufacturing [ 31 ]. The research shows that the primary challenges affecting aluminum alloys and composite are directly linked to the properties of the material.

An example can be seen in additive manufacturing where the growth in the application of aluminum in additive manufacturing has been driven by several important factors which include; low melting point, corrosion resistance, good strength-to-weight ratio. On the other hand, an important hurdle is finding suitable binders with the appropriate melting point to be used with powdered aluminum metals. The technology is also constrained by several other factors such as the need for a better understanding of the material properties, poor reproducibility, the need for additional material, lack of training and education of users and finally the unavailability of standards and certification.

Most manufacturers are cautious about using additive manufacturing as a viable manufacturing process due to the lack of repeatability and consistency of the manufactured parts. Manufacturers are also skeptical of the structural integrity of the finished products as compared to conventional manufacturing processes [ 12 ].

The primary challenge, however, is that materials produced using these processes contain numerous defects that limit the application. The verification and validation of the relationships between the process parameters and the finished product have been hampered by the lack of available data, poor understanding of the causes of internal defects, and uncertainty in detecting the critical flaw.

These gaps in the existing knowledge limit the wide-scale application of additive manufacturing technology. Research into this area will aim to bridge the gap by quantifying the relationship between the process parameters, surface quality and defects present within the finished products.

Aluminum alloys and composites Al-MMCs are of interest to the automotive and aerospace industries, because of comparably high strength-to-weight ratio, formability, and corrosion resistance.

However, despite the unique properties of these materials, the lack of a reliable joining method has limited their use to engineering applications where joining is unnecessary.

This can be seen as another major hurdle affecting the proliferation of aluminum alloys as an important material in achieving lightweighting objectives [ 34 , 35 ]. Over the last two decades, numerous joining techniques have been extensive studied to identify a process that can be successfully used for dissimilar joining of aluminum alloys and composites by minimizing undesirable interfacial reactions between the materials being joined. Some of the processes that have been studied include fusion welding [ 36 ], brazing [ 37 ], friction stir welding [ 38 ], solid-state diffusion bonding [ 39 ] and transient liquid-phase TLP bonding [ 35 , 40 ].

The key findings have shown that the inclusion of nanoparticles within the joint regions has the capability of significant increases in joint strength while minimizing unwanted interfacial reactions. The procedure has been applied to the diffusion bonding of aluminum alloys to magnesium as showing in see Figure 4 and diffusion bonding of Al-MMCs as shown in Figure 5.

Application of the concept to resistance spot welding also proved successful as shown in Figure 6 which demonstrates that Al and Mg can be successfully welded together without the formation of undesirable compounds. This introductory chapter presents a brief overview of the state of science and the application of aluminum alloys and composites.

The book contains seven chapters that have been divided into two sections. The first section of the text is focused on evaluating the types and properties of advanced aluminum alloys and composites. The chapters in this section provide a comprehensive overview of the processing, processing, formability, chemical composition of advance aluminum alloys and composites and the development of new types of alloys. The second section of the text contains chapters that are focused on exploring processing, characterization, and testing of aluminum alloys and composites such as wear testing.

The advantage of this text is that it provides a detailed review of major advances that have occurred in the development and application of aluminum alloys and composites while outlining a development strategy for these materials. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications.

Edited by Kavian Cooke. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: General background. Table 1. More Print chapter. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard.

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Aluminium alloy

Lightness is an essential property of aluminium. The electrical conductivity of When exposed to air, a layer of aluminum oxide forms almost instantaneously on the surface of the aluminum. This layer has excellent resistance to corrosion. It is fairly resistant to most acids but less resistant to alkalis.

Aluminium alloys or aluminum alloys ; see spelling differences are alloys in which aluminium Al is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper , magnesium , manganese , silicon , tin and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting point, although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys. The most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al—Si , where the high levels of silicon 4. Aluminium alloys are widely used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. Alloys composed mostly of aluminium have been very important in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal-skinned aircraft.

application of aluminium and its alloys. Other valuable properties include its high thermal Durham- the world's first all-aluminium structure of this type.

Structure and properties of aluminium–magnesium casting alloys after heat treatment

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When beginning any project, material selection is one of the most fundamental choices that can dictate its success. Airplanes, computers, buildings, and other modern technologies all use specialized materials that allow them to complete amazing tasks, and one of the most important materials in this regard is the metal aluminum. Aluminum is the most abundant metal on Earth, making it an attractive, cost-effective option for builders when considering metal for their project. This alloying process has allowed many grades of aluminum alloys to be produced, and there are so many grades that the Aluminum Association has classified these types of aluminum into categories based on alloying elements and material properties.

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Когда Мидж проходила мимо, Бринкерхофф по выражению ее глаз понял, что она и не думает сдаваться: чутье не позволит ей бездействовать. Бринкерхофф смотрел на массивную фигуру директора, возвышающуюся над письменным столом. Таким он его еще никогда не. Фонтейн, которого он знал, был внимателен к мелочам и требовал самой полной информации. Он всегда поощрял сотрудников к анализу и прояснению всяческих нестыковок в каждодневных делах, какими бы незначительными они ни казались. И вот теперь он требует, чтобы они проигнорировали целый ряд очень странных совпадений. Очевидно, директор что-то скрывает, но Бринкерхоффу платили за то, чтобы он помогал, а не задавал вопросы.

Но Танкадо бил мячом об стенку. Он превозносил достоинства Цифровой крепости по электронной почте, которую направлял на свой собственный адрес. Он писал письма, отправлял их анонимному провайдеру, а несколько часов спустя этот провайдер присылал эти письма ему самому. Теперь, подумала Сьюзан, все встало на свои места. Танкадо хотел, чтобы Стратмор отследил и прочитал его электронную почту. Он создал для себя воображаемый страховой полис, не доверив свой ключ ни единой душе. Конечно, чтобы придать своему плану правдоподобность, Танкадо использовал тайный адрес… тайный ровно в той мере, чтобы никто не заподозрил обмана.

 Ну да, это ночной рейс в выходные - Севилья, Мадрид, Ла-Гуардиа. Его так все называют. Им пользуются студенты, потому что билет стоит гроши. Сиди себе в заднем салоне и докуривай окурки. Хорошенькая картинка. Беккер застонал и провел рукой по волосам. - Когда он вылетает.

Types of Aluminum

Хейл достаточно понимал язык программирования Лимбо, чтобы знать, что он очень похож на языки Си и Паскаль, которые были его стихией. Убедившись еще раз, что Сьюзан и Стратмор продолжают разговаривать, Хейл начал импровизировать.

 А на этот рейс были свободные места. - Сколько угодно, - улыбнулась женщина.  - Самолет улетел почти пустой. Но завтра в восемь утра тоже есть… - Мне нужно узнать, улетела ли этим рейсом моя подруга. Она собиралась купить билет прямо перед вылетом.

 Джабба, - спросил Фонтейн, - много они похитили. - Совсем мало, - сказал Джабба, посмотрев на монитор.  - Всего лишь какие-то обрывки, в полном виде -. Фонтейн медленно кивнул и улыбнулся одними уголками губ. Он искал глазами Сьюзан Флетчер, но она уже стояла прямо перед экраном, на котором крупным планом было видно лицо Дэвида Беккера.

Беккер тоже понизил голос: - Мне нужно поговорить с одной из сопровождающих, которая, по-видимому, приглашена сегодня к вам на обед. Ее зовут Росио. Консьерж шумно выдохнул, словно сбросив с плеч тяжесть. - А-а, Росио - прелестное создание. - Мне нужно немедленно ее увидеть.

Я вам все верну.

 Такой список выдает только принтер Фонтейна. Ты это отлично знаешь. - Но такие сведения секретны. - У нас чрезвычайная ситуация, и мне нужен этот список.

 - Он потянулся к клавиатуре.  - Мистер Беккер, пожалуйста, продиктуйте надпись. Медленно и отчетливо. Дэвид Беккер начал читать, Джабба печатал следом за .

Она будет опять рядом с Дэвидом. Шифровалка начала вибрировать, словно из ее глубин на поверхность рвалось сердитое морское чудовище. Ей слышался голос Дэвида: Беги, Сьюзан, беги.

 Хочешь со мной переспать? - Теперь на Беккера смотрела юная девица, похожая на персонаж фильма ужасов Рассвет мертвецов. Темнота коридора перетекла в просторное цементное помещение, пропитанное запахом пота и алкоголя, и Беккеру открылась абсолютно сюрреалистическая картина: в глубокой пещере двигались, слившись в сплошную массу, сотни человеческих тел.

Три месяца назад до Фонтейна дошли слухи о том, что от Стратмора уходит жена. Он узнал также и о том, что его заместитель просиживает на службе до глубокой ночи и может не выдержать такого напряжения. Несмотря на разногласия со Стратмором по многим вопросам, Фонтейн всегда очень высоко его ценил. Стратмор был блестящим специалистом, возможно, лучшим в агентстве.

Родители согласились. Хотя Энсей Танкадо никогда прежде не видел компьютера, он как будто инстинктивно знал, как с ним обращаться. Компьютер открыл перед ним мир, о существовании которого он даже не подозревал, и вскоре заполнил всю его жизнь. Повзрослев, он начал давать компьютерные уроки, зарабатывать деньги и в конце концов получил стипендию для учебы в Университете Досися. Вскоре слава о фугуся-кисай, гениальном калеке, облетела Токио.

 Домой? - ужаснулся Бринкерхофф.  - Вечером в субботу. - Нет, - сказала Мидж.  - Насколько я знаю Стратмора, это его дела. Готова спорить на любые деньги, что он .

Introductory Chapter: Structural Aluminum Alloys and Composites


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The versatility of aluminium makes it the most widely used metal after steel.



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