File Name: a theory of the good and the right .zip
- Chapter 4. Aquinas’s Natural Law Theory
- Kant and Rawls: Contrasting Conceptions of Moral Theory
- Divine Command Theory
- Kant and Rawls: Contrasting Conceptions of Moral Theory
Philosophers both past and present have sought to defend theories of ethics that are grounded in a theistic framework.
Normative ethics , that branch of moral philosophy, or ethics , concerned with criteria of what is morally right and wrong. It includes the formulation of moral rules that have direct implications for what human actions, institutions, and ways of life should be like. It is typically contrasted with theoretical ethics , or metaethics , which is concerned with the nature rather than the content of ethical theories and moral judgments, and applied ethics, or the application of normative ethics to practical problems. The central question of normative ethics is determining how basic moral standards are arrived at and justified.
Chapter 4. Aquinas’s Natural Law Theory
Eric Mack. Search this site. A Few Fun Videos of Lectures. Selected Papers: Available in pdf form. Some Personal Stuff. Here you will find a good number of my published essays. They are all available as pdf files. The titles of some of these essays will be truncated a bit.
Of course, I do not currently endorse every stance I have ever taken or every argument I have ever made. The permissibility of such impingements must be part of the proper articulation of rights, if there is to be elbow room from rights -- which there must be for there to be rights. Such elbow requires that it must be permissible for one to act in self-defense.
Each person's liability to being subject to a given agent's self-defensive action is built into that agent's right of self-defense.
There is no need for a doctrine of rights-forfeiture to explain the permissibility of self-defensive actions. A response by Jerry will appear in the same issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy. What justification might those dispensations provide for a libertarian safety-net? I argue for this implicit reliance. In both of Hayek's extensions the crucial conclusion is that one must decide on the basis of rules and not on the basis of case-by-case consequentialist analysis.
These are the separateness conception and the unity of purpose conception. The latter asserts that cooperation is dependent upon their being a unity of purpose among the cooperating parties. Hence, stable cooperation is not possible among parties with ultimately distinct ends. In contrast, advocates of the separateness conception maintain that the distinctness of the ultimate ends of the parties involved does not at all inhibit market cooperation.
This is, indeed, the great virtue of market cooperation. The separateness conception is represented by Grotius, Hume, and Hayek. The unity of purpose conception is represented by Mill. Conventional rules defining a practice of property facilitate persons' exercise of this natural right. Cohen's criticisms of libertarian doctrines -- often by indicating how those doctrines ought to be revised or expanded so as not to be subject to those criticisms. Public Goods. Berlin really liked this paper!
It's uses of possessions not the having of possessions that may violate the proviso. Some Personal Stuff Sitemap. Bad Samaritanism and the Causation of Harm. I argue that omissions are not causes of the untoward events that the performance of the omitted act would have prevented. Deontic Restrictions are not Agent-Relative Restrictions.
Since deontic restrictions are grounded on features of the persons protected by them and are not optional for the agents subject to them, they are not "agent-relative. Distributionism Versus Justice. In this short paper out of my dissertation, I argue that distributionist doctrines cannot qualify as genuine theories of justice.
Distributive Justice and the Tensions of Lockeanism. A critique of the formulations of left-libertarianism in Hillel Steiner's great early papers.
Dominos and the Fear of Commodification. Critical discussion of the view that encountering market prices of goods and services disables people from seeing value in those goods and services beyond those prices. Elbow Room for Rights -- offprint. The exercise of the liberties protected by rights over oneself and one's property typically require what might be thought of as minor impingements upon others and their property. Elbow Room for Self-Defense - printed. If one takes seriously the right of self-defense, there must be moral elbow room for the exercise of that right.
Friedrich Hayek on the nature of social order and law. A basic friendly account of the core ideas within Hayek's understanding of the nature of social order and law.
A not especially hostile, but highly critical account of the ideas that seem to be at the base of Rand's views about rights. Hayek on justice and the order of actions. A exposition of the "telic" -- but not at all utilitarian -- justification that Hayek offers for the rules of just conduct in Law, Legislation, and Liberty. In Defense of Blackmail. In Defense of Individualism. A sketch of an individualist rights-respecting social order. In Defense of Jurisdiction Theory of Rights.
A critique of benefit and interest theories of rights and a defense of a jurisdiction theory that accommodates the centrality of choice insisted upon by choice theories of rights. Individualism and Libertarian Rights. Basic natural rights are presented as the deontic facet of the view that each person's living well is an end of ultimate value for that person. Inside Public Reason. Isaiah Berlin and the Quest for Liberal Pluralism.
An account and critique of Berlin's attempt to ground liberalism in a form of objective pluralism. General overview of Locke's political philosophy -- focusing on his grounding of natural rights and property rights and his defense of religious toleration. An account of Lysander Spooner's doctrine of natural rights -- which is compared to the views of Thomas Hodgskin and the early Herbert Spencer.
Moral individualism - Agent-Relativity and Deontic Restraints. An attempt to lay out how an understanding of value as agent-relative yet objective supports the affirmation of deontic retrictions that protect people in the pursuit of such value. Moral Individualism and Libertarian Theory.
An attempt to state in a slightly less arcanely academic way some of the things that I think. Moral Rights and Causal Casuistry. How thinking about rights might be guided by the moral importance of the act-omission and forseen-intended distinctions.
Natural and Contractual Rights. In another short paper out of my dissertation, I argue that the best account of the generation of contractual rights must invoke a background non-contractual right against being subject to coercion. Non-Absolute Rights and Libertarian Taxation. What sorts of dispensations do persons have from their normal obligations to abide by others' rights when those persons are in dire straits? Nozickian Arguments for the More-than-Minimal State. On the best understanding of how to delineate rights, a Nozickian can defend a slightly more than minimal state, viz.
Nozick on Unproductivity - The Unintended Consequences. A detailed critical account of what Nozick is trying to do in chapter four of Anarchy, State and Utopia and what problems are generated by his attempt.
Nozicks Anarchism. Nozick's argument against the individualist anarchism is explicated and rejected. Prerogatives, Restrictions, and Rights. Rights as deontic restrictions are defended by arguing that any reasonable moral theory must include robust individual prerogatives and a theory that includes such prerogatives must also include deontic restrictions. Problematic Arguments in Randian Ethics.
A not very friendly critique of the sorts of reasoning found in Rand and her followers especially concerning the relationship of considerations of self-interest and considerations of rights. Rights, Just War, and National Defense. A defense of a type of just war theory and a strongly non-interventionist foreign policy.
Rights to Natural Talents and Pure Profits. A critique of Gauthier's denial in Morals by Agreement of rights to pure profits. Scanlon as Natural Rights Theorist. Does contractualist theory implicitly rely upon persons having non-contractualist rights to be treated only in ways to which all would reasonable assent? Seen and Not Seen - published version. This essay is largely about two ways in which Hayek extends the insight of Bastiat that decision-making must better accommodate the existence of unseen consequences of our actions.
Self-Love, Cooperation, and Justice - printed. This essay contrasts two competing conceptions of cooperation -- especially economic cooperation. Self-Ownership and the Right of Property. A proper codification of natural rights includes a natural right of property -- which is a right to make things one's own. This very large two part essay examines and rebuts many of G.
The Ethics of Taxation - Rights versus. Is it acceptable to infringe upon rights -- or do what would otherwise be infringments of rights -- if so acting is necessary to secure the means to defend against other violations of rights? The Limits of Diversity. A comparison of the intelligibility and value of campus calls for "diversity" with the intelligibility and value of Berlin's appreciation of diversity -- to the discredit of the former.
The Natural Right of Property.
Kant and Rawls: Contrasting Conceptions of Moral Theory
There has been a modern revival of interest in virtue ethics as a plausible moral theory. There has been dissatisfaction with the way many modern moral theories emphasize moral obligation and law at the expense, some argue, of the individual Slote, , p. Hence, virtue ethics now stands as one of the leading moral theories in ethics. This paper will explore the potential of virtue ethics as a plausible moral theory. It will begin by explaining the main arguments of a virtue ethical approach and the advantages it has over other moral theories. It will then go on to discuss three of the main varieties of virtue ethics; care ethics, neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics, and agent-based virtue ethics. For each, it will explain how they distinctly define right action with regards to the virtues or the virtuous agent.
PDF | This is a chapter for a political philosophy handbook being edited by Antonella Besussi for Ashgate Publishing. The chapter aims to set.
Divine Command Theory
Value theory is important in its own right, which is sufficient reason to consider it, but consequentialism lacks content unless it is combined with a theory of value. It is important to distinguish the idea of an intrinsic good from the idea of an instrumental or extrinsic good. Instrumental goods are good or valuable only because of something else they bring about—something that is good in itself—whereas intrinsic goods are good in themselves. The distinction between the intrinsic and the instrumental can be drawn in different ways, as explained here. This article, however, is concerned with intrinsic goods.
British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Ethics are a system of moral principles and a branch of philosophy which defines what is good for individuals and society. At its simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles.
Eric Mack. Search this site. A Few Fun Videos of Lectures.
They show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts sometimes accusing them and at other times even defending them. Grace does not destroy nature but perfects it. He was a member of the Dominican Friars, which at that time was considered to be a cult, and was taught by one of the greatest intellects of the age, Albert the Great —
Kant and Rawls: Contrasting Conceptions of Moral Theory
But it is also an issue involving normative Ethics and bioethics, a new discipline which has developed in recent years, can nourish our critical thinking and orient our judgement. Nobody wants to be humiliated, discriminated. X is [insert There are generally three philosophical approaches, or what may be considered the science, to ethical reasoning: utilitarian ethics. As well as introducing the central ideas that relate to environmental and development ethics and how these two areas of ethical study interare related, this unit shows why ethics as a discipline can An Introduction to Ethics: How do I know what is right and wrong?
This essay was originally written for a workshop on rights at King's College London in May I am extremely grateful to all the participants in that workshop and especially to the two organizers, Rowan Cruft and Leif Wenar. I am also very grateful to Mark McBride for some earlier conversations about a few of the matters discussed in this paper, and to Gerard Bradley and John Finnis for comments on the penultimate draft.
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Richard Brandt A Theory of the Good and the Right, (Oxford: Clarendon Press - Volume 12 Issue 2.