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Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Audiovisual Translation — Dubbing and Subtitling in Slovakia. This might support an increase in the quality of translated products and emphasise the importance of further academic research within the field. Proposing ideas for further approaches within the Slovak academic milieu, the paper outlines the wide- ning borders of audiovisual translation. It also underlines the importance of the prepa- ration phase of translation studies trainees at Slovak universities and maps and outlines the possibilities for their specialised education in future.

Living in an era of media and mass communication in a globalised world, most European countries, in particular the countries of central Europe, absorb a huge number of audiovisual products from abroad. Therefore, a need for proper translation, which is to be con- sumed by large numbers of viewers, has arisen. Since the majority of audiovisual works in Slovakia come from abroad and there- fore have to be dubbed or subtitled, a demand for proper audiovisual translation has emerged and questions surrounding quality and the criteria of assessing quality have arisen.

However, although audiovisual translation has long been an attractive and challenging area in the Western milieu, the Slovak academic world has almost ne- glected it until now. Therefore a systematic theoretical approach has been largely missing and expert conclusions have only been sporadic.

These days, when the in- creasing power of mass media communication has led to a wider spread of foreign audiovisual products into the country than ever before, the need for an integrated approach to its exploration is evident.

Furthermore, more specific, and until now often neglected types of audiovisual translation are also attracting attention, not only in Europe but all around the world. Also to be considered are types of translation related to the special needs of final recipients, such as bilingual or mono- lingual subtitling for the deaf and hard-of-hearing or audiodescription for the visu- ally handicapped.

These are indubitably shifting the borders of what is usually un- derstood as translation — not only because of the variety of translation transfers but also because their assorted relation to audial, visual, cultural and language specifics. The aim of our article is therefore to introduce our crucial findings on audiovisual translation both home and abroad as well as ponder upon the distinctiveness of the traditional and newest forms and branches of this specific area of translation in Slovakia.

This might be important not only for further academic research but also more detailed assess- ment of the quality of translation as well as the prospects for specialised training in this field. Reflection on the Theory of Audiovisual Translation in Slovakia In terms of the theory of translation, the last few decades have mostly been de- voted to the translation of audiovisual texts. Emerging from the worldwide expan- sion and accessibility of audiovisual works of various origins, as well as the develop- ment of media, communication and presently mainly with digitalisation and digital video broadcasting, new challenges in this area have arisen and new methods and solutions need to be found.

However, the absence of approaching audiovisual transla- tion as a complex study has unfortunately enlarged the gaps between theory and practice in this field. Even though there have always been erudite researchers focused on the translation of audiovisual media, a specified, continuous, more complex study has for too long not been carried out and the translation of audiovisual texts has been encompassed mainly through the lens of the translation of literary texts or translation of drama.

However, the results obtained might serve as a reflection of the develop- ment, perception, interpretation and elaboration of the theory of audiovisual transla- tion in the Slovak academic milieu and might lead to consideration of new approach- es and methods already present abroad. Regarding the translation of film dialogues , p. These are important principles applicable also to subtitling, following the first phase — the translation of dialogues.

Another important element mentioned is the psychological aspect of perception and the intention to create an illusion of the original version.

Regarding the translation of documentary commentaries , p. She points out the various levels of designation of the texts in connection to the related specifics of speech, sound and image. Even though a translator can operate only with one of them — the layer of speech — other layers cannot be omitted in the process of translation. The layer of sound, understood as music and sound effects, and the visual layer are constant, but still influence a translator in the choice of solu- tion, although they cannot be modified.

Hochel therefore contemplates whether it is possible to consider an audiovisual translation as a form of literary translation and what possibility a translator has to elaborate an adequate equivalent of the text in a target language.

Although both types have common textual features in the form of screenplay, she points out that the situation is much more complicated. This overview of the most significant approaches to audiovisual translation in Slo- vakia shows that there had been a good foundation for the elaboration of more com- plex aggregates. However, at a time when other European countries e. Spain, Ger- many, the UK started to turn their attention towards translation for audiovisual me- dia, Slovak translation theory in this field lost pace.

Up until now, no more complex publications or monographs regarding audiovisual translation have been published and a complex and integrated approach is still needed, since it might be important not only for domestic theoreticians and practitioners of audiovisual translation but also for translation studies trainees, scholars and critics of translation of audiovisual texts.

Prospects for Training in Audiovisual Translation in Slovakia: Practice-oriented Models Following the expansion of the number of audiovisual works in Slovakia in the last few decades, the development of technologies and the prevalence of electronic media, the professional requirements of the persons included in the process of audio- visual translation have increased markedly.

Consequently, this has recently shifted the borders of academic interest in the area of audiovisual translation also towards training and teaching and didactics of audiovisual translation has thus become an increasingly attractive area of research and practice in the academic environment across the globe. As we pointed out in our former article on teaching audiovisual translation , by sim- ply researching online advertising, it seems that the most common market require- ments for audiovisual translation in the central European context are: experience, flexibility and commitment.

These requirements are, of course, understandable. However, they do not reflect any significant or specialised approaches to translation of audiovisual texts or specific types of this kind of translation. Unfortunately, no complex research on the market requirements in this region has been completed.

However, some useful partial conclusions might be found in the works by world-fa- mous researchers engaging mainly the area of subtitling, such as Henrik Gottlieb , John D. Furthermore, they have also provided useful outlines for specialised audiovisual-translation training.

Another useful basis for specialised training in audiovisual translation can be seen in various publications on audiovisual translation teaching. In the last decade, these have usually emphasised the need for interconnecting the teaching process with translation practice and trying to specify the market needs and requirements.

A relation to translation practice in translation training can be also seen in the latest recommendation for translation studies programmes which pursue collaboration with professional organisations and model real practice situa- tions in order to provide the trainee with the first contact with their future occupa- tion see e.

Naturally, not all universities — definitely not Slovak universities — have the opportunity to ensure trainers come from a practical environment for various economical, organisational as well as administrative reasons. In the following chapter of the article we will outline the alternative of securing practice-oriented audiovisual university training. The aim of this course is to introduce significant aspects of audiovisual translation as a specific type of transla- tion and then to provide a more complex foundation in relation to the translation of dialogues, their adjustment and editing for dubbing or subtitling, and the technical processing of subtitles.

The course is oriented practically and after the theoretical introduction tries to develop the specific skills and competences of an audiovisual translator-to-be. There Makarian points out the importance of differentiating between the translation of audiovisual texts from the translation of literary texts, since the translation of the audiovisual text is not a final product but a foundation phase for further processing. Therefore he describes the principal requirements for the translator defined in connection to dub- bing , p.

Important is as well capa- bility to transfer the qualities of the original into the translated text, to be objective and suppress personal interpretations and opinion on the original and to rephrase the original and all specifics of its style. Makarian particularly points out need to have a good sense of the Slovak language both in written and spoken form , to avoid com- plicated, unclear sentences and artificial expressions and follow the natural rhythm and cadence of the dialogues in the original texts.

For the role of the dialogue editor he later supplements the importance of extensive vocabulary, a sense of language and the rhythm of speech, an ability to perceive and interpret the audiovisual work as an artistic complex, ability to empathise with the mental processes of the character and at least a working knowledge of the language of the original , p. Furthermore, other specifications must be added — those would refer mainly to text compression and segmentation. What can also not be omitted are particular computer skills, since — contrary to traditional approaches — technical mastering of subtitles is currently very often one of the essen- tial tasks of the translator, since the market has lately preferred translators to provide more complex services.

This, however makes one think about the parameters of the translation task, which are obviously widening and also reflects the increased requirements of the present-day translator. In order to develop all competence areas sufficiently and eventually fulfil profes- sional and market requirements, contact and cooperation with translation and media practice must be provided.

We focus on this aspect also in our former research on teaching audiovisual translation. One World Festival, Having acquainted the students with an overview of the main issues of audiovisu- al translation, specialised training within a separate course included in the transla- tion studies programme study plan took place. Besides covering crucial topics in au- diovisual translation theory, its main objective was to provide contact with the pro- fession via modelling the working environment specifics and conditions from prac- tice.

This was easily accomplished by the initiation of collaboration with future film- makers from the Film and Television Faculty from the Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava. During the training, several audiovisual works by future film-makers were sent for translation of the screenplay, dialogues and subtitles. Following the existing theory on translation of audiovisual texts, gaining and training the skills needed and verifying the knowledge acquired in practice, it is hoped that it will contribute to the education of a new generation of translators who might increase the quality of the translation process in future audiovisual works.

Conclusion In spite of the fact that the number of audiovisual products of foreign origin re- leased in Slovakia is incomparably higher than the amount of domestic production, it could be claimed that the academic milieu has neglected this area of study for quite a long time.

Although the approach of the Slovak school of translation is demon- strated in partial works or by knowledgeable theoreticians and practitioners of trans- lation, a complex work of monographic character regarding this specific area is still lacking.

The presented article therefore provides an overview on the most significant findings related to the translation of audiovisual texts home and abroad and proposes future areas of academic interest. It outlines and ponders upon borders of audiovisu- al translation which have lately shifted in the area of academic research, translation practice and consequently in the area of training and education.

With respect to this, the article focuses mainly on the challenges of educating and training translation studies trainees interested in translation for audiovisual media. Notes 1 Translated by the authors. In: META. In: Babel. Bratislava: Tatran, , pp. In: Salevsky, H. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, , pp. In: Jour- nal of Specialised Translation [online]. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, Jerome Publishing, In: The Nature of translation. Gambier, Yves edit. Turku: University of Turku, Turku: University of Turku, Centre for translation and Interpreting, Copenhagen: University of Copenha- gen, In: M.

Brno: Tri- bun EU, pp. El doblaje. Huelva: University of Huelva Publications, Bratislava: FF UK, , pp. In: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Praha: FF UK, , p.

Bratislava: Sti- mul, , pp.

Dubbing and Subtitling in a World Context

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Through contributions investigating various modes, contexts and genres, the volume provides an invaluable insight into under-researched issues and realities, showing how technology, commercial aspects and audience preferences, among other factors, are noticeably changing the current landscape. It displays many fresh views from both new and established scholars in the field and demonstrates the importance of looking at these areas from a global perspective, as it investigates quality, audience design and professional practices, and shows the importance of context in translation studies. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Front Matter Pages i-xvii. Audiovisual Translation in a Global Context.

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Audiovisual Translation

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Fong, Gilbert C.F., Kenneth K.L. Au (eds) (). Dubbing and. Subtitling in a World Context. Hong Kong: The Chinese University. Press, pp.


Gilbert Fong

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