File Name: philosophy history and problems .zip
Political philosophy , branch of philosophy that is concerned, at the most abstract level, with the concepts and arguments involved in political opinion. The meaning of the term political is itself one of the major problems of political philosophy. Broadly, however, one may characterize as political all those practices and institutions that are concerned with government.
Philosophy of History
The term was probably coined by Pythagoras c. Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument , and systematic presentation.
Historically, philosophy encompassed all bodies of knowledge and a practitioner was known as a philosopher. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
Today, major subfields of academic philosophy include metaphysics , which is concerned with the fundamental nature of existence and reality ; epistemology , which studies the nature of knowledge and belief ; ethics , which is concerned with moral value ; and logic , which studies the rules of inference that allow one to derive conclusions from true premises.
Initially the term referred to any body of knowledge. In Against the Logicians the Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus detailed the variety of ways in which the ancient Greek philosophers had divided philosophy, noting that this three-part division was agreed to by Plato, Aristotle, Xenocrates, and the Stoics.
This division is not obsolete, but has changed: natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially physics, astronomy , chemistry , biology , and cosmology ; moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences , while still including value theory e.
Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. McGinn claims that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom , intellectual culture, and a search for knowledge. In this sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions, such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality.
Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world , dating back to pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in 6th-century Greece BCE , such as Thales c. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: .
While our knowledge of the ancient era begins with Thales in the 6th century BCE, little is known about the philosophers who came before Socrates commonly known as the pre-Socratics. The ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools. Most notable among the schools influenced by Socrates' teachings were Plato , who founded the Platonic Academy , and his student Aristotle ,  who founded the Peripatetic school. Other ancient philosophical traditions influenced by Socrates included Cynicism , Cyrenaicism , Stoicism , and Academic Skepticism.
Two other traditions were influenced by Socrates' contemporary, Democritus : Pyrrhonism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics with competing theories such as atomism and monism , cosmology , the nature of the well-lived life eudaimonia , the possibility of knowledge , and the nature of reason logos.
With the rise of the Roman empire , Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca see Roman philosophy. Medieval philosophy 5th—16th centuries is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the rise of Christianity and hence reflects Judeo-Christian theological concerns as well as retaining a continuity with Greco-Roman thought. Problems such as the existence and nature of God , the nature of faith and reason, metaphysics, the problem of evil were discussed in this period.
Some key Medieval thinkers include St. Philosophy for these thinkers was viewed as an aid to Theology ancilla theologiae and hence they sought to align their philosophy with their interpretation of sacred scripture. This period saw the development of Scholasticism , a text critical method developed in medieval universities based on close reading and disputation on key texts.
The Renaissance period saw increasing focus on classic Greco-Roman thought and on a robust Humanism. The 20th century saw the split between analytic philosophy and continental philosophy , as well as philosophical trends such as phenomenology , existentialism , logical positivism , pragmatism and the linguistic turn see Contemporary philosophy.
The regions of the Fertile Crescent , Iran and Arabia are home to the earliest known philosophical wisdom literature and is today mostly dominated by Islamic culture.
Early Wisdom Literature from the Fertile Crescent was a genre which sought to instruct people on ethical action, practical living and virtue through stories and proverbs. In Ancient Egypt , these texts were known as sebayt 'teachings' and they are central to our understandings of Ancient Egyptian philosophy. Babylonian astronomy also included much philosophical speculations about cosmology which may have influenced the Ancient Greeks. Jewish philosophy and Christian philosophy are religio-philosophical traditions that developed both in the Middle East and in Europe, which both share certain early Judaic texts mainly the Tanakh and monotheistic beliefs.
Later Jewish philosophy came under strong Western intellectual influences and includes the works of Moses Mendelssohn who ushered in the Haskalah the Jewish Enlightenment , Jewish existentialism , and Reform Judaism. The various traditions of Gnosticism , which were influenced by both Greek and Abrahamic currents, originated around the first century and emphasized spiritual knowledge gnosis.
Pre-Islamic Iranian philosophy begins with the work of Zoroaster , one of the first promoters of monotheism and of the dualism between good and evil. This dualistic cosmogony influenced later Iranian developments such as Manichaeism , Mazdakism , and Zurvanism.
Islamic philosophy is the philosophical work originating in the Islamic tradition and is mostly done in Arabic. It draws from the religion of Islam as well as from Greco-Roman philosophy. After the Muslim conquests , the translation movement mid-eighth to the late tenth century resulted in the works of Greek philosophy becoming available in Arabic.
Early Islamic philosophy developed the Greek philosophical traditions in new innovative directions. This intellectual work inaugurated what is known as the Islamic Golden Age.
The two main currents of early Islamic thought are Kalam , which focuses on Islamic theology , and Falsafa , which was based on Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism. The work of Aristotle was very influential among philosophers such as Al-Kindi 9th century , Avicenna — June and Averroes 12th century.
Others such as Al-Ghazali were highly critical of the methods of the Islamic Aristotelians and saw their metaphysical ideas as heretical. Islamic thinkers like Ibn al-Haytham and Al-Biruni also developed a scientific method , experimental medicine, a theory of optics and a legal philosophy.
Ibn Khaldun was an influential thinker in philosophy of history. Islamic thought also deeply influenced European intellectual developments, especially through the commentaries of Averroes on Aristotle. The Mongol invasions and the destruction of Baghdad in is often seen as marking the end of the Golden Age.
The 19th- and 20th-century Arab world saw the Nahda movement literally meaning 'The Awakening'; also known as the 'Arab Renaissance' , which had a considerable influence on contemporary Islamic philosophy. Indian philosophical traditions share various key concepts and ideas, which are defined in different ways and accepted or rejected by the different traditions. Some of the earliest surviving Indian philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the later Vedic period — BCE , which are considered to preserve the ideas of Brahmanism.
Indian philosophy is commonly grouped based on their relationship to the Vedas and the ideas contained in them. Jainism and Buddhism originated at the end of the Vedic period , while the various traditions grouped under Hinduism mostly emerged after the Vedic period as independent traditions. The doctrines of the Vedas and Upanishads were interpreted differently by these six schools of Hindu philosophy , with varying degrees of overlap.
They represent a "collection of philosophical views that share a textual connection," according to Chadha There are also other schools of thought which are often seen as "Hindu", though not necessarily orthodox since they may accept different scriptures as normative, such as the Shaiva Agamas and Tantras , these include different schools of Shavism such as Pashupata , Shaiva Siddhanta , non-dual tantric Shavism i.
Trika, Kaula, etc. Jain philosophy is one of the only two surviving "unorthodox" traditions along with Buddhism. It generally accepts the concept of a permanent soul jiva as one of the five astikayas eternal, infinite categories that make up the substance of existence. Jain thought holds that all existence is cyclic, eternal and uncreated. The Tattvartha Sutra is the earliest known, most comprehensive and authoritative compilation of Jain philosophy.
Buddhist philosophy begins with the thought of Gautama Buddha fl. In these regions, Buddhist thought developed into different philosophical traditions which used various languages like Tibetan , Chinese and Pali. As such, Buddhist philosophy is a trans-cultural and international phenomenon. Because ignorance to the true nature of things is considered one of the roots of suffering dukkha , Buddhist philosophy is concerned with epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and psychology.
Buddhist philosophical texts must also be understood within the context of meditative practices which are supposed to bring about certain cognitive shifts. After the death of the Buddha, various groups began to systematize his main teachings, eventually developing comprehensive philosophical systems termed Abhidharma.
There were numerous schools, sub-schools, and traditions of Buddhist philosophy in ancient and medieval India. Many of these traditions were also studied in other regions, like Central Asia and China, having been brought there by Buddhist missionaries.
After the disappearance of Buddhism from India, some of these philosophical traditions continued to develop in the Tibetan Buddhist , East Asian Buddhist and Theravada Buddhist traditions. East Asian philosophical thought began in Ancient China , and Chinese philosophy begins during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the following periods after its fall when the " Hundred Schools of Thought " flourished 6th century to BCE.
These philosophical traditions developed metaphysical, political and ethical theories such Tao , Yin and yang , Ren and Li.
Neo-Confucianism was a syncretic philosophy, which incorporated the ideas of different Chinese philosophical traditions, including Buddhism and Taoism. Neo-Confucianism came to dominate the education system during the Song dynasty — , and its ideas served as the philosophical basis of the imperial exams for the scholar official class.
The Ming scholar Wang Yangming — is a later but important philosopher of this tradition as well. Chinese culture was highly influential on the traditions of other East Asian states and its philosophy directly influenced Korean philosophy , Vietnamese philosophy and Japanese philosophy. In Japan, the Tokugawa shogunate — was also strongly influenced by Confucian philosophy.
In the Modern era, Chinese thinkers incorporated ideas from Western philosophy. Chinese Marxist philosophy developed under the influence of Mao Zedong , while a Chinese pragmatism developed under Hu Shih.
The old traditional philosophies also began to reassert themselves in the 20th century. For example, New Confucianism , led by figures such as Xiong Shili , has become quite influential.
Likewise, Humanistic Buddhism is a recent modernist Buddhist movement. Modern Japanese thought meanwhile developed under strong Western influences such as the study of Western Sciences Rangaku and the modernist Meirokusha intellectual society which drew from European enlightenment thought and promoted liberal reforms as well as Western philosophies like Liberalism and Utilitarianism.
Another trend in modern Japanese philosophy was the "National Studies" Kokugaku tradition. This intellectual trend sought to study and promote ancient Japanese thought and culture.
Kokugaku thinkers such as Motoori Norinaga sought to return to a pure Japanese tradition which they called Shinto that they saw as untainted by foreign elements. During the 20th century, the Kyoto School , an influential and unique Japanese philosophical school developed from Western phenomenology and Medieval Japanese Buddhist philosophy such as that of Dogen. African philosophy is philosophy produced by African people , philosophy that presents African worldviews, ideas and themes, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods.
Modern African thought has been occupied with Ethnophilosophy , with defining the very meaning of African philosophy and its unique characteristics and what it means to be African. During the 17th century, Ethiopian philosophy developed a robust literary tradition as exemplified by Zera Yacob. Another early African philosopher was Anton Wilhelm Amo c. Contemporary African thought has also seen the development of Professional philosophy and of Africana philosophy , the philosophical literature of the African diaspora which includes currents such as black existentialism by African-Americans.
Some modern African thinkers have been influenced by Marxism , African-American literature , Critical theory , Critical race theory , Postcolonialism and Feminism. Indigenous-American philosophical thought consists of a wide variety of beliefs and traditions among different American cultures.
Among some of U. Another widely shared concept was that of orenda 'spiritual power'. According to Whiteley , for the Native Americans, "mind is critically informed by transcendental experience dreams, visions and so on as well as by reason.
Another feature of the indigenous American worldviews was their extension of ethics to non-human animals and plants.
Philosophy of History
Epistemology , the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge. Epistemology has a long history within Western philosophy , beginning with the ancient Greeks and continuing to the present. Along with metaphysics , logic , and ethics , it is one of the four main branches of philosophy, and nearly every great philosopher has contributed to it. Why should there be a discipline such as epistemology? Aristotle — bce provided the answer when he said that philosophy begins in a kind of wonder or puzzlement. Nearly all human beings wish to comprehend the world they live in, and many of them construct theories of various kinds to help them make sense of it. Because many aspects of the world defy easy explanation , however, most people are likely to cease their efforts at some point and to content themselves with whatever degree of understanding they have managed to achieve.
Philosophy: History and Problems
Embed Size px x x x x Philosophy: History and Readings, 8th. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC. This text brings togetherStumpfs and Fiesers Socrates to Sartre and Beyond with an updated anthology of readings in one volume.
Philosophy makes a central contribution to the educational enterprise through its demands upon intellectual activity. Education in philosophy involves becoming aware of major figures and developments in the history of philosophy, learning up-to-date techniques and accepted answers to philosophical questions, and learning critical, interpretive, and evaluative skills that, in the overall scheme of things, may be considered to be of greatest value. Graduates of the philosophy program at James Madison University are expected to have come to terms with difficult texts dealing with advanced philosophical arguments. These readings are often quite diverse in method and content. Further, a variety of written work is part of the philosophy student's assignments, and it is expected that these assignments be carefully composed and thoughtfully addressed.
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Embed Size px x x x x Philosophy: History and Readings, 8th. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC.
Philosophy of education , philosophical reflection on the nature, aims, and problems of education. The philosophy of education is Janus -faced, looking both inward to the parent discipline of philosophy and outward to educational practice. This dual focus requires it to work on both sides of the traditional divide between theory and practice, taking as its subject matter both basic philosophical issues e. These practical issues in turn have implications for a variety of long-standing philosophical problems in epistemology , metaphysics , ethics , and political philosophy.
The concept of history plays a fundamental role in human thought. It invokes notions of human agency, change, the role of material circumstances in human affairs, and the putative meaning of historical events. It is therefore unsurprising that philosophers have sometimes turned their attention to efforts to examine history itself and the nature of historical knowledge. In a sense, this question is best answered on the basis of a careful reading of some good historians. But it will be useful to offer several simple answers to this foundational question as a sort of conceptual map of the nature of historical knowing.