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It represents a broad consensus about the most critical security risks to web applications. Globally recognized by developers as the first step towards more secure coding. Companies should adopt this document and start the process of ensuring that their web applications minimize these risks. Using the OWASP Top 10 is perhaps the most effective first step towards changing the software development culture within your organization into one that produces more secure code.
OWASP Top Ten
Portable Document Format PDF , standardized as ISO , is a file format developed by Adobe in to present documents , including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software , hardware , and operating systems.
PDF was standardized as ISO in and therefore no longer requires royalties for its implementation. PDF files may contain a variety of content besides flat text and graphics including logical structuring elements, interactive elements such as annotations and form-fields, layers, rich media including video content , and three-dimensional objects using U3D or PRC , and various other data formats.
The PDF specification also provides for encryption and digital signatures , file attachments, and metadata to enable workflows requiring these features. Adobe Systems made the PDF specification available free of charge in PDF was a proprietary format controlled by Adobe until it was released as an open standard on July 1, , and published by the International Organization for Standardization as ISO ,   at which time control of the specification passed to an ISO Committee of volunteer industry experts.
In , Adobe published a Public Patent License to ISO granting royalty-free rights for all patents owned by Adobe that are necessary to make, use, sell, and distribute PDF-compliant implementations. PDF 1. These proprietary technologies are not standardized and their specification is published only on Adobe's website.
In December, , the second edition of PDF 2. A PDF file is often a combination of vector graphics , text, and bitmap graphics. The basic types of content in a PDF are:. PostScript is a page description language run in an interpreter to generate an image, a process requiring many resources. It can handle graphics and standard features of programming languages such as if statements and loop commands.
PDF is largely based on PostScript but simplified to remove flow control features like these, while graphics commands such as lineto remain.
The graphics commands that are output by the PostScript code are collected and tokenized. Any files, graphics, or fonts to which the document refers also are collected. Then, everything is compressed to a single file. Therefore, the entire PostScript world fonts, layout, measurements remains intact. Comments may contain 8-bit characters. Objects may be either direct embedded in another object or indirect. Indirect objects are numbered with an object number and a generation number and defined between the obj and endobj keywords if residing in the document root.
Beginning with PDF version 1. This technique enables non-stream objects to have standard stream filters applied to them, reduces the size of files that have large numbers of small indirect objects and is especially useful for Tagged PDF. Object streams do not support specifying an object's generation number other than 0. An index table, also called the cross-reference table, is typically located near the end of the file and gives the byte offset of each indirect object from the start of the file.
Before PDF version 1. Version 1. Such a stream may be used instead of the ASCII cross-reference table and contains the offsets and other information in binary format. If a cross-reference stream is not being used, the footer is preceded by the trailer keyword followed by a dictionary containing information that would otherwise be contained in the cross-reference stream object's dictionary:.
There are two layouts to the PDF files: non-linear not "optimized" and linear "optimized". Non-linear PDF files can be smaller than their linear counterparts, though they are slower to access because portions of the data required to assemble pages of the document are scattered throughout the PDF file. Linear PDF files also called "optimized" or "web optimized" PDF files are constructed in a manner that enables them to be read in a Web browser plugin without waiting for the entire file to download, since they are generated in a linear as in page order fashion.
The basic design of how graphics are represented in PDF is very similar to that of PostScript , except for the use of transparency , which was added in PDF 1. PDF graphics use a device-independent Cartesian coordinate system to describe the surface of a page. A PDF page description can use a matrix to scale , rotate , or skew graphical elements.
A key concept in PDF is that of the graphics state , which is a collection of graphical parameters that may be changed, saved, and restored by a page description. PDF has as of version 1. Paths can be stroked, filled, and used for clipping. Strokes and fills can use any color set in the graphics state, including patterns. PDF supports several types of patterns.
The simplest is the tiling pattern in which a piece of artwork is specified to be drawn repeatedly. This may be a colored tiling pattern , with the colors specified in the pattern object, or an uncolored tiling pattern , which defers color specification to the time the pattern is drawn.
Beginning with PDF 1. There are seven types of shading patterns of which the simplest are the axial shade Type 2 and radial shade Type 3. The dictionary describes the properties of the image, and the stream contains the image data. Less commonly, a raster image may be embedded directly in a page description as an inline image.
Images are typically filtered for compression purposes. Image filters supported in PDF include the following general-purpose filters:.
Normally all image content in a PDF is embedded in the file. But PDF allows image data to be stored in external files by the use of external streams or Alternate Images. Text in PDF is represented by text elements in page content streams. A text element specifies that characters should be drawn at certain positions.
The characters are specified using the encoding of a selected font resource. A font object in PDF is a description of a digital typeface. It may either describe the characteristics of a typeface, or it may include an embedded font file. The latter case is called an embedded font while the former is called an unembedded font. The font files that may be embedded are based on widely used standard digital font formats: Type 1 and its compressed variant CFF , TrueType , and beginning with PDF 1.
Fourteen typefaces, known as the standard 14 fonts , have a special significance in PDF documents:. These fonts are sometimes called the base fourteen fonts. Within text strings, characters are shown using character codes integers that map to glyphs in the current font using an encoding. There are a number of predefined encodings, including WinAnsi , MacRoman , and many encodings for East Asian languages and a font can have its own built-in encoding. Although the WinAnsi and MacRoman encodings are derived from the historical properties of the Windows and Macintosh operating systems, fonts using these encodings work equally well on any platform.
PDF can specify a predefined encoding to use, the font's built-in encoding or provide a lookup table of differences to a predefined or built-in encoding not recommended with TrueType fonts. For large fonts or fonts with non-standard glyphs, the special encodings Identity-H for horizontal writing and Identity-V for vertical are used.
With such fonts, it is necessary to provide a ToUnicode table if semantic information about the characters is to be preserved. The original imaging model of PDF was, like PostScript's, opaque : each object drawn on the page completely replaced anything previously marked in the same location.
In PDF 1. When transparency is used, new objects interact with previously marked objects to produce blending effects. The addition of transparency to PDF was done by means of new extensions that were designed to be ignored in products written to PDF 1. As a result, files that use a small amount of transparency might view acceptably by older viewers, but files making extensive use of transparency could be viewed incorrectly by an older viewer without warning.
The transparency extensions are based on the key concepts of transparency groups , blending modes , shape , and alpha. The model is closely aligned with the features of Adobe Illustrator version 9. The blend modes were based on those used by Adobe Photoshop at the time. When the PDF 1. They have since been published. The concept of a transparency group in PDF specification is independent of existing notions of "group" or "layer" in applications such as Adobe Illustrator.
Those groupings reflect logical relationships among objects that are meaningful when editing those objects, but they are not part of the imaging model. A "tagged" PDF see clause Technically speaking, tagged PDF is a stylized use of the format that builds on the logical structure framework introduced in PDF 1.
Tagged PDF defines a set of standard structure types and attributes that allow page content text, graphics, and images to be extracted and reused for other purposes. With the introduction of PDF version, 1. Layers, or as they are more formally known Optional Content Groups OCGs , refer to sections of content in a PDF document that can be selectively viewed or hidden by document authors or consumers.
This capability is useful in CAD drawings, layered artwork, maps, multi-language documents, etc. Basically, it consists of an Optional Content Properties Dictionary added to the document root. This dictionary contains an array of Optional Content Groups OCGs , each describing a set of information and each of which may be individually displayed or suppressed, plus a set of Optional Content Configuration Dictionaries, which give the status Displayed or Suppressed of the given OCGs.
A PDF file may be encrypted , for security, in which case a password is needed to view or edit the contents. PDF 2. PDF files may be digitally signed, to provide secure authentication; complete details on implementing digital signatures in PDF is provided in ISO PDF files may also contain embedded DRM restrictions that provide further controls that limit copying, editing or printing.
These restrictions depend on the reader software to obey them, so the security they provide is limited. The standard security provided by Acrobat PDF consists of two different methods and two different passwords: a user password , which encrypts the file and prevents opening, and an owner password , which specifies operations that should be restricted even when the document is decrypted, which can include modifying, printing, or copying text and graphics out of the document, or adding or modifying text notes and AcroForm fields.
The user password encrypts the file, while the owner password does not, instead of relying on client software to respect these restrictions. An owner password can easily be removed by software, including some free online services. Even without removing the password, most freeware or open source PDF readers ignore the permission "protections" and allow the user to print or make copy of excerpts of the text as if the document were not limited by password protection.
The signature is used to validate that the permissions have been granted by a bona fide granting authority. For example, it can be used to allow a user: . For example, Adobe Systems grants permissions to enable additional features in Adobe Reader, using public-key cryptography.
Adobe Reader verifies that the signature uses a certificate from an Adobe-authorized certificate authority.
World Wide Web
The moist sugar from the centrifugals contains about 1 percent water by weight. We examined Sugar Research Foundation SRF internal documents, historical reports, and statements relevant to early debates about the dietary causes of CHD and assembled findings chronologically into a narrative case study. It is a pretty simple app with a catchy interface. A polysaccharide molecule is composed of a large number of sugar or sugar-like units. You might try the zigzag method as well. Manuals in Sugars.
Its 15 knowledge areas KAs summarize basic concepts and include a reference list pointing to more detailed information. For version 3. In future refreshes, the Computer Society and its volunteers will continue to use the transparent and open consensus process that is an integral part of SWEBOK. An international team of KA Editors produced or refreshed the content in each knowledge area. A team of overall editors directed the entire effort, and a Change Control Board approved all major requested changes.
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