File Name: noise pollution causes effects and control measures .zip
Water pollution guide website: information on sources of pollution and how they can be treated. Sewage is another name for waste water from domestic and industrial processes. Despite strict regulatory control, the Environment Agency data shows that the water and sewage industry accounted for almost a quarter of the serious water incidents in England and Wales in
As the world becomes more urbanized, the use of machine-technology increases, and levels of development become higher and more complex, human exposure to noise increases. One authority estimates that the average noise level in the American city is increasing by 1 dB annually. Despite the importance and great scale of the problem, geographers generally have ignored the field of noise pollution research, perhaps because specialized equipment is necessary to accumulate the data required for analysis.
Noise may not seem as harmful as the contamination of air or water, but it IS a pollution problem that affects human health and can contribute to a general deterioration of environmental quality. Noise is undesirable and unwanted sound. All sound is not noise. It may be considered as music to one person and may be noise to another.
Sound is measured in a unit called the decibel dB. The permitted noise level is decibels as per the Environment Protection Rules There are numerous sources but may be broadly classified into two classes such as indoor and outdoor:.
Another source of noise pollution connected with aero planes has been scaring away of birds. Satellites are projected into space with the help of high explosive rockets also contributes to noise pollution.
Emotional or psychological effects — irritability, anxiety and stress. Lack of concentration and mental fatigue are significant health effects of noise. It has been observed that the performance of school children is poor in comprehension tasks when schools are situated in busy areas of a city and suffer from noise pollution disturbance. Interferes with normal auditory communication, it may mask auditory warning signals and hence increases the rate of accidents especially in industries.
The effects can range in severity from being extremely annoying to being extremely painful and hazardous lowers workers efficiency and productivity and higher accident rates on the job. Physical damage to the ear and the temporary hearing loss often called a temporary threshold shift TTS. People suffering from this condition will be unable to detect weak sounds. However, hearing ability is usually recovered within a month of exposure. Below a sound level of 80 dB.
However temporary effects are noticed at sound levels between 80 and dB. About 50 percent of the people exposed to 95 dB sound levels at work will develop NIPTS and most people exposed to more than dB will experience permanent hearing loss.
In additions to hearing losses, excessive sound levels can cause harmful effect on the circulatory system by raising blood pressure and altering pulse rates. Make sure that all openings are acoustically sealed. Noise, lake water rushes out through any cracks or openings. Muffling vehicles and machinery to reduce the noise. In industries, different types of absorptive material can be used to control interior noise. Noise reduction can be done by using rigid sealed enclosures around machinery lined with acoustic absorbing material.
Isolating machines and their enclosures from the floor using special spring mounts or absorbent mounts and pads and using flexible couplings for interior pipelines also contribute to reducing noise pollution at the source.
Regular and thorough maintenance of operating machinery. We should reduce mechanical run out of shafts. By reducing this source of vibration excitation many components like bearing gears and cans may generate less noise and have generate life. We must improve lubrications. We should install bearings correctly. Improper installation sometimes is the reason for bearing noise problems. Traffic volume and speed also have significant effects on the overall sound. Example: doubling the speed increases the sound levels by about 9 dB and doubling the traffic volume number of vehicles per hour increases sound levels by about 3 dB.
A smooth flow of traffic causes less noise than a stop-and-go traffic pattern. Thus proper highway planning and design are essential for controlling traffic noise. Establishing lower speed limits for highways that pass through residential areas, limiting traffic volume and providing alternative routes for truck traffic are effective noise control measures.
Using efficient flow techniques: for reducing noise associated with high fluid velocities and turbulence. Reducing fluid jet velocities: As jet noise is proportional to the eight power of jet velocity. Highly absorptive interior finish material for walls, ceilings and floors can decrease indoor noise levels significantly.
Increasing distance from the noise source and the recipient offers a passive means of control:. Municipal land- use ordinances pertaining to the location of airports make use of the attenuating effect of distance on sound levels. Use of earplugs and earmuffs. Specially designed earmuffs can reduce the sound level reaching the eardrum by as much as 40 dB. Besides these in general making Legislation, Educating and bringing awareness in the people is common for control of any pollution Example: Ban on loud speakers from 10 pm to 6 pm.
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When many of us think of pollution, images of smoggy cities and litter-infested oceans come to mind. While littering and gasoline-fueled cars are a major contributor to pollution, there are many other influences that are important to be aware of. Essentially, pollution occurs when substances are introduced to the environment that have harmful effects, damaging the quality of land, water, and air. The cause is the accumulation of solid and liquid waste materials that contaminate groundwater and soil. These waste materials are often referred to as municipal solid waste MSW , which includes both hazardous and non-hazardous waste. When waste is deposited onto an area of land, the permeability of the soil formations below the waste can increase or reduce the risk of land pollution. The higher the permeability of the soil, the more likely that land pollution will occur.
Noise pollution has become a major environmental problem leading to nuisances and health issues. This paper aims to study and analyse the noise pollution levels in major areas in Ota metropolis. A probability model which is capable of predicting the noise pollution level is also determined. Datasets on the noise pollution level in 41 locations across Ota metropolis were used in this research.
Status of Air Pollution in Delhi
Noise may not seem as harmful as the contamination of air or water, but it IS a pollution problem that affects human health and can contribute to a general deterioration of environmental quality. Noise is undesirable and unwanted sound. All sound is not noise. It may be considered as music to one person and may be noise to another. Sound is measured in a unit called the decibel dB. The permitted noise level is decibels as per the Environment Protection Rules
Atmospheric pollution is not the only type of contamination that is harming living beings on the planet. And according to the European Environment Agency EEA , noise is responsible for 16, premature deaths and more than 72, hospitalisations every year in Europe alone. According to the WHO, noise is harmful when it exceeds 75 decibels dB and feels painful at levels above dB. Drivers honking the horn, groups of workers drilling the road surface, aircraft flying over us in the sky Noise, noise and more noise.
Внезапно камера отъехала в сторону, под деревья. В кадре возник мужчина в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, в руке он держал большой портфель. Выйдя на открытое место и бросив взгляд на корчащегося на земле Танкадо, он задвигал пальцами, словно исполнял ими какой-то причудливый танец над коробочкой, которую держал в руке. - Он работает на Монокле, - пояснил Смит.
Он был добрым и честным, выдержанным и безукоризненным в общении. Самым главным для него была моральная чистота. Именно по этой причине увольнение из АН Б и последующая депортация стали для него таким шоком.
Но, приближаясь к рубильнику, Стратмор понял, что ему необходимо преодолеть еще одно препятствие - тело Чатрукьяна на ребрах охлаждения генератора. Вырубить электропитание и снова его включить значило лишь вызвать повторное замыкание. Труп надо передвинуть. Стратмор медленно приближался к застывшему в гротескной лозе телу, не сводя с него глаз. Он схватил убитого за запястье; кожа была похожа на обгоревший пенопласт, тело полностью обезвожено.
Беккер не сразу почувствовал, что его кто-то подталкивает. Подняв глаза, он увидел старика с усыпанным родинками лицом, который стоял перед ним, намереваясь пройти. Беккера охватила паника.