N Type And P Type Semiconductors Pdf

n type and p type semiconductors pdf

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A semiconductor which is pure and contains no impurity is known as an intrinsic semiconductor. In an intrinsic semiconductor, the number of free electrons and holes are equal.

Intrinsic and extrinsic N-type & p-type Semi Conductors

Pure semiconductors are relatively good insulators as compared with metals, though not nearly as good as a true insulator like glass. To be useful in semiconductor applications, the intrinsic semiconductor pure undoped semiconductor must have no more than one impurity atom in 10 billion semiconductor atoms. This is analogous to a grain of salt impurity in a railroad boxcar of sugar. Impure, or dirty semiconductors are considerably more conductive, though not as good as metals. Why might this be? To answer that question, we must look at the electron structure of such materials in Figure below.

An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped ; during manufacture of the semiconductor crystal a trace element or chemical called a doping agent has been incorporated chemically into the crystal, for the purpose of giving it different electrical properties than the pure semiconductor crystal, which is called an intrinsic semiconductor. In an extrinsic semiconductor it is these foreign dopant atoms in the crystal lattice that mainly provide the charge carriers which carry electric current through the crystal. The doping agents used are of two types, resulting in two types of extrinsic semiconductor. An electron donor dopant is an atom which, when incorporated in the crystal, releases a mobile conduction electron into the crystal lattice. An extrinsic semiconductor which has been doped with electron donor atoms is called an n-type semiconductor , because the majority of charge carriers in the crystal are negative electrons.

Intrinsic and extrinsic N-type & p-type Semi Conductors

Doping means the introduction of impurities into a semiconductor crystal to the defined modification of conductivity. Other materials are aluminum, indium 3-valent and arsenic, antimony 5-valent. The dopant is integrated into the lattice structure of the semiconductor crystal, the number of outer electrons define the type of doping. Elements with 3 valence electrons are used for p-type doping, 5-valued elements for n-doping. The conductivity of a deliberately contaminated silicon crystal can be increased by a factor of 10 6. The 5-valent dopant has an outer electron more than the silicon atoms.

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A semiconductor which is pure and contains no impurity is known as an intrinsic semiconductor. In an intrinsic semiconductor, the number of free electrons and holes are equal. Common examples of intrinsic semiconductors are pure germanium and silicon. Schematic band diagram of an intrinsic semiconductor at room temperature is represented.

The addition of a small percentage of foreign atoms in the regular crystal lattice of silicon or germanium produces dramatic changes in their electrical properties, producing n-type and p-type semiconductors. Pentavalent impurities Impurity atoms with 5 valence electrons produce n-type semiconductors by contributing extra electrons.

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There are two general categories of semiconductors: intrinsic semiconductors, which are composed of only one material, and extrinsic semiconductors, which have had other substances added to them to alter their properties. In semiconductor production, the process of creating extrinsic semiconductors by adding substances to a pure semiconductor for the purposes of modulating its electrical properties is known as doping. Semiconductors are doped to generate either a surplus or a deficiency in valence electrons. Electrons in free atoms have discrete energy values. The highest energy band contains valence electrons available for chemical reactions. The conduction band is the band above the valence band.

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Difference Between p Type and n Type Semiconductor

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Basics of Semiconductor Diodes


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