Tourism Concepts And Practices John R Walker Pdf

tourism concepts and practices john r walker pdf

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A port is a maritime facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg , Manchester and Duluth , are many miles inland, with access to the sea via river or canal. Because of their roles as a port of entry for immigrants many port cities such as London, New York, Shanghai, Los Angeles, Singapore and Vancouver have experienced dramatic multi-ethnic and multicultural changes.

Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports , such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan.

As of , the busiest passenger port in the world is the Port of Helsinki in Finland. Ports are responsible for a number of environmental impacts on local ecologies and water ways, for example direct effects on water quality, caused by dredging, spills and other pollution.

Ports are heavily effected by the changing environmental factors caused by climate change. Importantly most port infrastructure is extremely vulnerable to sea level rise , due to its low-lying nature, making it vulnerable to extreme weather and coastal flooding. Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea.

Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus , the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In Japan, during the Edo period , the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice.

Post-classical Swahili kingdoms are known to have had trade port islands and trade routes [6] with the Islamic world and Asia. They were described by Greek historians as "metropolises". Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer exist or function as modern ports. Even in more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex , was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles 3.

Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs , with transport links using sea, river, canal, road, rail and air routes. Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland , such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, and will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are often on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging.

Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers , Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres , warehouses and freight-forwarders, canneries and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby.

Modern ports will have specialised cargo -handling equipment, such as gantry cranes , reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports usually have specialised functions: some tend to cater mainly for passenger ferries and cruise ships ; some specialise in container traffic or general cargo; and some ports play an important military role for their nation's navy.

Some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch respectively.

In modern times, ports survive or decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business.

Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames , but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline.

Thamesport , [10] a small semi-automated container port with links to the Port of Felixstowe , the UK's largest container port thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub.

In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned partly by the state and partly by the cities themselves. Even though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters.

For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp , an inland port on the River Scheldt , are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands.

Ports with international traffic have customs facilities. The terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations.

A fishing port is a port or harbor for landing and distributing fish. It may be a recreational facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, and depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river fluvial port , or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.

An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto , Duluth-Superior , and Chicago. A seaport is a port located on the shore of a sea or ocean. It is further categorized as a "cruise port" or a "cargo port". The "cargo port" is also further categorized into a "bulk" or "break bulk port" or as a "container port".

Cargo ports , on the other hand, are quite different from cruise ports, because each handles very different cargo, which has to be loaded and unloaded by very different mechanical means. The port may handle one particular type of cargo or it may handle numerous cargoes, such as grains, liquid fuels, liquid chemicals, wood, automobiles, etc. Such ports are known as the "bulk" or "break bulk ports".

Those ports that handle containerized cargo are known as container ports. Most cargo ports handle all sorts of cargo, but some ports are very specific as to what cargo they handle. Additionally, the individual cargo ports are divided into different operating terminals which handle the different cargoes, and are operated by different companies, also known as terminal operators or stevedores. A cruise home port is the port where cruise ship passengers board or embark to start their cruise and disembark the cruise ship at the end of their cruise.

It is also where the cruise ship's supplies are loaded for the cruise, which includes everything from fresh water and fuel to fruits, vegetables, champagne, and any other supplies needed for the cruise.

Cruise home ports tend to have large passenger terminals to handle the large number of passengers passing through the port. The busiest cruise home port in the world is the Port of Miami , Florida.

A smart port uses technologies, including the Internet of Things IoT , artificial intelligence AI and blockchain to be more efficient at handling goods. However, thanks to global government initiatives and exponential growth in maritime trade, the amount of intelligent ports has gradually increased.

A port of call is an intermediate stop for a ship on its sailing itinerary. At these ports, cargo ships may take on supplies or fuel, as well as unloading and loading cargo while cruise liners have passengers get on or off ship. A warm-water port is one where the water does not freeze in wintertime.

Because they are available year-round, warm-water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. The Baltic Sea and similar areas have ports available year-round beginning in the 20th century thanks to icebreakers , but earlier access problems prompted Russia to expand its territory to the Black Sea.

Ports and their operation are often both the cause of environmental issues, such as sediment contamination and spills from ships and are susceptible to larger environmental issues, such as human caused climate change and its effects. Every year million cubic metrics of marine sediment are dredged to improve waterways around ports. Dredging, in its practice, disturbs local ecosystems, brings sediments into the water column, and can stir up pollutants captured in the sediments.

Invasive species are often spread by the bilge water and species attached to the hulls of ships. Ports are also a source of increased air pollution both because of the ships and land transportation at the port. Transportation corridors around ports have higher exhaust and emissions and this can have related health effects on the local communities. Water quality around ports is often lower because of both direct and indirect pollution from the shipping, and other challenges caused by the port's community, such as trash washing into the ocean.

Sewage from ships, and leaks of oil and chemicals from shipping vessels can contaminate local water, and cause other effects like nutrient pollution in the water. Ports and their infrastructure are very vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise, because many of them are in low-lying areas designed for status quo water levels.

There are several initiatives to decrease negative environmental impacts of ports. The port of Shanghai is the largest port in the world in both cargo tonnage and activity. It regained its position as the world's busiest port by cargo tonnage and the world's busiest container port in and , respectively. Europe's busiest container port and biggest port by cargo tonnage by far is the Port of Rotterdam , in the Netherlands.

The largest port in Australia is the Port of Melbourne. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Maritime facility where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.

This article is about the facility for ships. For other uses, see Port disambiguation. Main article: Historical Ports. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Dry port. Main article: Inland port. Main article: Smart port.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. December Further information: Environmental impact of shipping. Main article: Dredging. Main article: List of seaports.

See also: Ports and harbours in South Africa. See also: List of busiest ports in Europe. Encyclopedia of the City. UN Conference on Trade and Development.

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Tourism: Concepts and Practices

Chairman Tonko, Ranking Member Shimkus, and members of the subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to discuss the crucial topic of carbon capture, utilization, and storage CCUS and H. Thank you as well to Reps. Peters, McKinley, Veasey, and Schweikert for your bipartisan leadership on this legislation, which has already garnered 57 co-sponsors, from both parties. We strongly support the USE IT Act because of its potential to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies for capturing, transporting, utilizing, and sequestering carbon dioxide, a key contributor to climate change.

Tourism: Concepts and Practices

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A port is a maritime facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg , Manchester and Duluth , are many miles inland, with access to the sea via river or canal. Because of their roles as a port of entry for immigrants many port cities such as London, New York, Shanghai, Los Angeles, Singapore and Vancouver have experienced dramatic multi-ethnic and multicultural changes.

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Сирены захлебнулись, мониторы Третьего узла погасли. Тело Грега Хейла растворилось в темноте, и Сьюзан, инстинктивно поджав ноги, прикрылась пиджаком Стратмора. В шифровалке никогда еще не было так тихо, здесь всегда слышался гул генераторов. Теперь все умолкло, так что можно было различить облегченный вздох раненого чудовища - ТРАНСТЕКСТА, постепенно стихающее шипение и посвистывание, сопутствующие медленному охлаждению. Сьюзан закрыла глаза и начала молиться за Дэвида.

Второй - с помощью ручного выключателя, расположенного в одном из ярусов под помещением шифровалки. Чатрукьян тяжело сглотнул. Он терпеть не мог эти ярусы. Он был там только один раз, когда проходил подготовку.


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