File Name: statistical principles of research design and analysis .zip
While data analysis in qualitative research can include statistical procedures, many times analysis becomes an ongoing iterative process where data is continuously collected and analyzed almost simultaneously. Indeed, researchers generally analyze for patterns in observations through the entire data collection phase Savenye, Robinson, The form of the analysis is determined by the specific qualitative approach taken field study, ethnography content analysis, oral history, biography, unobtrusive research and the form of the data field notes, documents, audiotape, videotape.
Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation, 2e
There are a number of approaches used in this research method design. The purpose of this chapter is to design the methodology of the research approach through mixed types of research techniques.
The research approach also supports the researcher on how to come across the research result findings. In this chapter, the general design of the research and the methods used for data collection are explained in detail.
It includes three main parts. The first part gives a highlight about the dissertation design. The second part discusses about qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The last part illustrates the general research framework.
The purpose of this section is to indicate how the research was conducted throughout the study periods. Al Hadid. Research methodology is the path through which researchers need to conduct their research.
It shows the path through which these researchers formulate their problem and objective and present their result from the data obtained during the study period. This research design and methodology chapter also shows how the research outcome at the end will be obtained in line with meeting the objective of the study. This chapter hence discusses the research methods that were used during the research process.
It includes the research methodology of the study from the research strategy to the result dissemination. In order to satisfy the objectives of the study, a qualitative and quantitative research method is apprehended in general. The study used these mixed strategies because the data were obtained from all aspects of the data source during the study time.
Therefore, the purpose of this methodology is to satisfy the research plan and target devised by the researcher. The research design is intended to provide an appropriate framework for a study. A very significant decision in research design process is the choice to be made regarding research approach since it determines how relevant information for a study will be obtained; however, the research design process involves many interrelated decisions [ 1 ].
This study employed a mixed type of methods. The other design used is an interview of employees to know how they feel about safety and health of their workplace, and field observation at the selected industrial sites was undertaken. Hence, this study employs a descriptive research design to agree on the effects of occupational safety and health management system on employee health, safety, and property damage for selected manufacturing industries.
This design offers to the researchers a profile of described relevant aspects of the phenomena of interest from an individual, organizational, and industry-oriented perspective.
Therefore, this research design enabled the researchers to gather data from a wide range of respondents on the impact of safety and health on manufacturing industries in Ethiopia. The research overall design and flow process are depicted in Figure 1. Research methods and processes author design.
To address the key research objectives, this research used both qualitative and quantitative methods and combination of primary and secondary sources. The qualitative data supports the quantitative data analysis and results. The result obtained is triangulated since the researcher utilized the qualitative and quantitative data types in the data analysis. The study area, data sources, and sampling techniques were discussed under this section.
According to Fraenkel and Warren [ 4 ] studies, population refers to the complete set of individuals subjects or events having common characteristics in which the researcher is interested.
The population of the study was determined based on random sampling system. This data collection was conducted from March 07, to December 10, , from selected manufacturing industries found in Addis Ababa city and around. The manufacturing companies were selected based on their employee number, established year, and the potential accidents prevailing and the manufacturing industry type even though all criterions were difficult to satisfy.
It was obtained from the original source of information. The primary data were more reliable and have more confidence level of decision-making with the trusted analysis having direct intact with occurrence of the events. Desk review has been conducted to collect data from various secondary sources. This includes reports and project documents at each manufacturing sectors more on medium and large level. Reputable journals, books, different articles, periodicals, proceedings, magazines, newsletters, newspapers, websites, and other sources were considered on the manufacturing industrial sectors.
The data also obtained from the existing working documents, manuals, procedures, reports, statistical data, policies, regulations, and standards were taken into account for the review.
In general, for this research study, the desk review has been completed to this end, and it had been polished and modified upon manuals and documents obtained from the selected companies. To select representative manufacturing industrial sector population, the types of the industries expected were more potential to accidents based on random and purposive sampling considered. The population of data was from textile, leather, metal, chemicals, and food manufacturing industries.
A total of sample sizes of industries responded to the questionnaire survey from the priority areas of the government. Random sample sizes and disproportionate methods were used, and 80 from wood, metal, and iron works; 30 from food, beverage, and tobacco products; 50 from leather, textile, and garments; 20 from chemical and chemical products; and 9 from other remaining 9 clusters of manufacturing industries responded.
A simple random sampling and purposive sampling methods were used to select the representative manufacturing industries and respondents for the study. The simple random sampling ensures that each member of the population has an equal chance for the selection or the chance of getting a response which can be more than equal to the chance depending on the data analysis justification. Sample size determination procedure was used to get optimum and reasonable information.
In this study, both probability simple random sampling and nonprobability convenience, quota, purposive, and judgmental sampling methods were used as the nature of the industries are varied. This is because of the characteristics of data sources which permitted the researchers to follow the multi-methods. This helps the analysis to triangulate the data obtained and increase the reliability of the research outcome and its decision.
The determination of the sample size was adopted from Daniel [ 5 ] and Cochran [ 6 ] formula. The formula used was for unknown population size Eq. However, the collected data indicated that only populations were used for the analysis after rejecting some data having more missing values in the responses from the industries.
The population were assumed to be satisfactory and representative for the data analysis. The sample size for the experimental exposure measurements of physical work environment has been considered based on the physical data prepared for questionnaires and respondents. The selection method was using random sampling in line with purposive method.
Data collection methods were focused on the followings basic techniques. These included secondary and primary data collections focusing on both qualitative and quantitative data as defined in the previous section.
The data collection mechanisms are devised and prepared with their proper procedures. Primary data sources are qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative sources are field observation, interview, and informal discussions, while that of quantitative data sources are survey questionnaires and interview questions.
The next sections elaborate how the data were obtained from the primary sources. Observation is an important aspect of science. Observation is tightly connected to data collection, and there are different sources for this: documentation, archival records, interviews, direct observations, and participant observations. Observational research findings are considered strong in validity because the researcher is able to collect a depth of information about a particular behavior.
In this dissertation, the researchers used observation method as one tool for collecting information and data before questionnaire design and after the start of research too. The researcher made more than 20 specific observations of manufacturing industries in the study areas.
During the observations, it found a deeper understanding of the working environment and the different sections in the production system and OSH practices. Interview is a loosely structured qualitative in-depth interview with people who are considered to be particularly knowledgeable about the topic of interest.
The semi-structured interview is usually conducted in a face-to-face setting which permits the researcher to seek new insights, ask questions, and assess phenomena in different perspectives. It let the researcher to know the in-depth of the present working environment influential factors and consequences. It has provided opportunities for refining data collection efforts and examining specialized systems or processes.
It was used when the researcher faces written records or published document limitation or wanted to triangulate the data obtained from other primary and secondary data sources. This dissertation is also conducted with a qualitative approach and conducting interviews. The advantage of using interviews as a method is that it allows respondents to raise issues that the interviewer may not have expected.
All interviews with employees, management, and technicians were conducted by the corresponding researcher, on a face-to-face basis at workplace. All interviews were recorded and transcribed.
The main tool for gaining primary information in practical research is questionnaires, due to the fact that the researcher can decide on the sample and the types of questions to be asked [ 2 ].
In this dissertation, each respondent is requested to reply to an identical list of questions mixed so that biasness was prevented. Initially the questionnaire design was coded and mixed up from specific topic based on uniform structures. Consequently, the questionnaire produced valuable data which was required to achieve the dissertation objectives. The questionnaires developed were based on a five-item Likert scale. The data obtained in this way was used for prioritization and decision-making of OSH, improving factor priority.
The prioritization of the factors was using Saaty scales 1—9 and then converting to Fuzzy set values obtained from previous researches using triangular fuzzy set [ 7 ]. The researcher has measured the workplace environment for dust, vibration, heat, pressure, light, and noise to know how much is the level of each variable. The primary data sources planned and an actual coverage has been compared as shown in Table 1. The response rate for the proposed data source was good, and the pilot test also proved the reliability of questionnaires.
Hence, the data organization quality level has not been compromised. This response rate is considered to be representative of studies of organizations. Low response rate should not discourage the researchers, because a great deal of published research work also achieves low response rate. Hence, the response rate of this study is acceptable and very good for the purpose of meeting the study objectives. It has been proved with this pilot test prior to the start of the basic data collections.
Following feedback process, a few minor changes were made to the originally designed data collect tools. The pilot test made for the questionnaire test was on 10 sample sizes selected randomly from the target sectors and experts. The secondary data refers to data that was collected by someone other than the user.
This data source gives insights of the research area of the current state-of-the-art method. It also makes some sort of research gap that needs to be filled by the researcher.
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There are a number of approaches used in this research method design. The purpose of this chapter is to design the methodology of the research approach through mixed types of research techniques. The research approach also supports the researcher on how to come across the research result findings. In this chapter, the general design of the research and the methods used for data collection are explained in detail. It includes three main parts. The first part gives a highlight about the dissertation design. The second part discusses about qualitative and quantitative data collection methods.
RDR addresses the basic question, "Is it good. Highlight the reasons why researchers employ a mixed methods design e. Evaluation Tool for Quantitative Research Studies Building on work within a project exploring the feasibility of undertaking systematic reviews of research literature on effectiveness and outcomes in social care, a set of evaluation tools have been developed to assist in the critical appraisal of research studies. Quantitative analysis QA is a technique uses mathematical and statistical modeling, measurement, and research that to understand behavior.
Adopted guideline. Overview of comments. Draft guideline.
Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. Populations can be diverse groups of people or objects such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.
How to Not Lie with Statistics
There are a number of approaches used in this research method design. The purpose of this chapter is to design the methodology of the research approach through mixed types of research techniques. The research approach also supports the researcher on how to come across the research result findings. In this chapter, the general design of the research and the methods used for data collection are explained in detail. It includes three main parts. The first part gives a highlight about the dissertation design.