File Name: chemical analysis of milk and milk products .zip
Authors: H. Michael Wehr and Joseph F.
- Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products
- The Dairy Industry: Process, Monitoring, Standards, and Quality
- Chemical Composition of Milk and Milk Products
This study aimed to assess the organoleptic, physico-chemical, and microbial quality as well as the presence of any adulterants in different commercial and local milk samples. Three brands of ultra-high temperature UHT milk, three brands of pasteurized milk, and three raw milk samples were procured and analyzed for different quality tests. Consumer preference about the milk samples were studied by evaluating the organoleptic properties by a testing panel of 15 panelists.
Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products
Dairy product , milk and any of the foods made from milk, including butter , cheese , ice cream , yogurt , and condensed and dried milk. Milk has been used by humans since the beginning of recorded time to provide both fresh and storable nutritious foods. In some countries almost half the milk produced is consumed as fresh pasteurized whole, low-fat, or skim milk. However, most milk is manufactured into more stable dairy products of worldwide commerce, such as butter, cheese, dried milks, ice cream, and condensed milk.
Cow milk bovine species is by far the principal type used throughout the world. Other animals utilized for their milk production include buffalo in India, China, Egypt, and the Philippines , goats in the Mediterranean countries , reindeer in northern Europe , and sheep in southern Europe.
This section focuses on the processing of cow milk and milk products unless otherwise noted. In general, the processing technology described for cow milk can be successfully applied to milk obtained from other species. In the early s the average dairy cow produced less than 1, litres of milk annually. With advances in animal nutrition and selective breeding, one cow now produces an average of 6, litres of milk a year, with some cows producing up to 10, litres. The Holstein-Friesian cow produces the greatest volume, but other breeds such as Ayrshire, Brown Swiss , Guernsey, and Jersey, while producing less milk, are known for supplying milk that contains higher fat , protein, and total solids.
Although milk is a liquid and most often considered a drink, it contains between 12 and 13 percent total solids and perhaps should be regarded as a food. Many factors influence the composition of milk, including breed, genetic constitution of the individual cow, age of the cow, stage of lactation , interval between milkings, and certain disease conditions. Since the last milk drawn at each milking is richest in fat, the completeness of milking also influences a sample.
In general, the type of feed only slightly affects the composition of milk, but feed of poor quality or insufficient quantity causes both a low yield and a low percentage of total solids. Current feeding programs utilize computer technology to achieve the greatest efficiency from each animal.
The composition of milk varies among mammals , primarily to meet growth rates of the individual species. Human milk is relatively low in both proteins and minerals compared with that of cows and goats. Goat milk has about the same nutrient composition as cow milk, but it differs in several characteristics. Goat milk is completely white in colour because all the beta-carotene ingested from feed is converted to vitamin A.
The fat globules are smaller and therefore remain suspended, so the cream does not rise and mechanical homogenization is unnecessary.
Goat milk curd forms into small, light flakes and is more easily digested, much like the curd formed from human milk. It is often prescribed for persons who are allergic to the proteins in cow milk and for some patients afflicted with stomach ulcers.
Sheep milk is rich in nutrients, having 18 percent total solids 5. Reindeer milk has the highest level of nutrients, with These high-fat, high-protein milks are excellent ingredients for cheese and other manufactured dairy products.
The major components of milk are water, fat, protein, carbohydrate lactose , and minerals ash. However, there are numerous other highly important micronutrients such as vitamins, essential amino acids, and trace minerals. Indeed, more than chemical compounds have been identified in milk. The table shows the composition of fresh fluid milk and other dairy products. Dairy product Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
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The Dairy Industry: Process, Monitoring, Standards, and Quality
The principal constituents of milk are water, fat, proteins, lactose milk sugar and minerals salts. Milk also contains trace amounts of other substances such as pigments, enzymes, vitamins, phospholipids substances with fatlike properties , and gases. The residue left when water and gases are removed is called the dry matter DM or total solids content of the milk. Milk is a very complex product. In order to describe the various constituents of milk and how they are affected by the various stages of treatment in the dairy, it is necessary to resort to chemical terminology. This chapter on the chemistry of milk therefore begins with a brief review of some basic chemical concepts. The atom is the smallest building block of all matter in nature and cannot be divided chemically.
The list of GEA analytical methods for dry milk products is a completely revised and updated list of analytical methods for analyzing dry milk products. The methods are intended for anyone needing standardized testing routines of dried milk products. Everyone, whether based in a laboratory or factory, can use these up-to-date and easily accessible methods as part of your standard operating practices. It is a revised and collection of analytical methods based on the original GEA Analytical Methods for Dry Milk Products that have been out of print for several years. Analytical methods and technologies that have evolved since then are included, just as in some cases, changes in equipment have taken place, and these changes have been taken into account when updating the methods. All the method documents are available for download in PDF-format. Using advanced data-driven and machine learning technologies, GEA OptiPartner increases the efficiency and productivity with full visibility of process.
Chemical Composition of Milk and Milk Products
Milk is a nutrient -rich liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals, including breastfed human infants before they are able to digest solid food. It holds many other nutrients,  including protein and lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon, particularly among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals.
By Niamh Burke, Krzysztof A. Ryan and Catherine C. Sampling and analysis occur along the milk processing train: from collection at farm level, to intake at the diary plant, the processing steps, and the end products.
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- Стремительная. Все люди на подиуме потянулись к терминалу в одно и то же мгновение, образовав единое сплетение вытянутых рук. Но Сьюзан, опередив всех, прикоснулась к клавиатуре и нажала цифру 3. Все повернулись к экрану, где над всем этим хаосом появилась надпись: ВВЕСТИ ПАРОЛЬ.
Пальцы у него онемели. Он упал. И в следующее мгновение не осталось ничего, кроме черной бездны. ГЛАВА 102 Стратмор спустился на нижний этаж ТРАНСТЕКСТА и ступил с лесов в дюймовый слой воды на полу. Гигантский компьютер содрогался мелкой дрожью, из густого клубящегося тумана падали капли воды.
- Это все, что у меня. - Боже мой! - Она улыбнулась.